Leisure Skills for Adults with Autism

This month’s ASAT feature comes to us from Megan McCarron, MS, BCBA. To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

I am a BCBA working in an ABA Teaching Home. I am adept with teaching play skills to younger children but would like some guidance on assessing interests and helping young adults develop hobbies that they can pursue in an independent and meaningful manner.

This is a very important question. There is an abundance of research on how to teach leisure activities using instructional methods such as modeling, video modeling, and activity schedules, moreover, it is vital that careful thought and planning be put into selecting and individualizing leisure activities.

Typically, one’s interests are developed over time via exposure to and interaction with new and varied people, places, and activities. Exposure usually occurs over the course of life without much forethought, resulting in interests that shift and change. Unfortunately, this is often not the case for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

There are two key deficits within the diagnostic criteria for ASD that are likely to impact individuals’ exposure to and interaction within varied leisure activities. First, persistent limitations in social communication and social interaction can hinder an individual’s ability to request access to items and activities, and/or to express one’s level of interest. Second, the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities may prevent an individual from exploring novel items or activities.

Individuals’ difficulty making or expressing choice limit exposure to new and varied items and activities. Limited interests or those that are markedly different from those of same-aged peers make it that much more difficult to determine ways to expand and develop interests. As a result, careful thought and planning are required to help individuals with autism engage in meaningful leisure activities.

Finding Leisure Activities

Given that there is an unending number of items or leisure activities that could be assessed, it is important to narrow down the field to things that are likely to be of interest before conducting your assessments. A few of these approaches are as follows:

Expand upon current interests. Ask caregivers, teachers, siblings, or others who spend time with the individual to complete an interview, checklist or other type of survey. Create your own questions or use published materials such as the Reinforcer Assessment for Individual with Severe Disabilities (RAISD). Do not immediately discount unusual or idiosyncratic interests. Look to see if there are groups in the community or online that share that interest. If necessary, teach when and where it is okay to engage in preferences that may be annoying to others or are socially stigmatizing. Examples:

Select novel activities that contain components of already preferred activities. Identify common features of known preferences, and then identify novel items or activities that contain the same or similar features. Examples:

Make modifications to existing activities to incorporate the preferred feature of other preferred activities. Examples:

Pair a known interest with a compatible novel activity. Examples:

Identify shared interests. In addition to identifying activities by exploring and expanding upon current interests of the individual, it can be worthwhile to identify interests of the people the individual spends a lot of time with and activities available in the individual’s school, home, and local community. These activities will offer up the opportunity for social interaction with others.

Assessing Activities

Once potential activities are selected, assessments can be conducted to determine how preferred the activities are. While preference assessments are commonly used and talked about in terms of finding reinforcers, they are equally useful for assessing preference levels for potential leisure activities. Initially, free operant assessments are very helpful in terms of assessing potential leisure activities. These can be conducted in the natural environment or a contrived and enriched setting.

Free operant preference assessments can be conducted through direct observation by providing free access to activities without demands, time limits or requirements to use items in a predetermined manner (unless it is a safety issue). Assessments can be conducted in either a natural or contrived setting, as described below (Toner, 2014; Chazin & Ledford, 2016).

Collect data on:

  • Which items/activities the individual interacts with
  • Duration of each interaction
  • Can be helpful to note the individual’s observable signs of positive affect during interactions, such as smiles or laughter
  • If the individual interacts with an item in an unexpected or unusual manner, make note of what he or she did.

Once the free operant assessment data have been collected and ranked in order of which activities were engaged with the most (e.g., by calculating a percentage of time of the observation in which the student engaged in each activity), subsequent paired choice preference assessments or MSWO assessments could be conducted to better assess the individual’s relative preference for activities. With this information, you can make an informed choice about what activities are likely to provide “enjoyment” and thus fit the definition of leisure.

Selecting Teaching Targets for the IEP

It is important to help an individual build a repertoire of activities that can be used to fill the various functions of leisure. Therefore, the activities chosen as a focus of teaching should cover a variety of leisure situations.

  • Social Activities (any activity done with another person).
  • Individual Activity (any activity that can be done alone).
  • Health and Fitness.
  • Longer duration activities.
  • Short duration activities that can be done while waiting (looking at books, magazines, music on phone, etc.)

Some activities may be adaptable enough to be used across several leisure functions. For example, listening to music can be a social or individual activity; it can easily be paired with a variety of health and fitness activities and can be used for short or long durations.

In addition to selecting specific activities/skills for leisure, it is advisable to include an objective in a student’s IEP that targets the individual’s exposure to leisure activities. The goal of this objective would be to have the student continue to try out new activities over three to four opportunities to further expose them to new activities. During the sampling sessions, staff should collect data on duration of engagement, observable signs of affect, and any skill deficits that inhibit engagement.

Considerations for Increasing Functional Independence in Leisure
While identifying preferred activities is a major part of building a leisure repertoire, there are a whole host of skills that can increase an individual’s ability to access and engage in leisure activities as independently as possible.

Ensure the individual has an effective means of communication. An essential skill, regardless of the individual’s vocal verbal ability, is teaching an appropriate way to request access to activities, especially those that are not readily available in the current environment such as requesting to go to the mall or to a specific store (Schneiter & Devine, 2001). Equally important is the ability for an individual to appropriately decline participation and/or end an activity when the activity is not preferred.

Teach prerequisite skills. If a student shows interest in an activity but is not able to fully engage in the activity, it may be necessary to teach the individual specific prerequisite skills. Examples:

If a Sampling Leisure Activities objective has been included in the IEP, the sampling period can be used to help identify what types of prerequisite skills may need to be taught.

  • The individual may need to be taught skills related to any materials or equipment required for an activity. For example, gathering equipment / materials prior to starting the activity; caring for the equipment / materials putting equipment away when finished, and problem solving (e.g., what to do if materials are missing, broken, or need to be replenished).
  • Time management skills, such as identifying when it is time to engage in a leisure activity, selecting an activity that fits the amount of time for leisure, identifying when activities are essential components of increasing independence. Using schedules and calendars can be helpful to structure and prompt leisure activities but may require specific teaching. For example, using a calendar app on a phone can be very useful, but it may be necessary to start off with teaching the student to respond to an alert to engage in an activity and build up to having them enter information into the calendar.

Final Thoughts

Every individual has different interests, abilities, and obstacles to work through in establishing leisure skills. However, building on and expanding from high preference, high availability activities and using evidence-based assessment and teaching strategies to establish independence in leisure activities provides a strong foundation from which to start.


References

Blum-Dimaya, A., Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Hoch, H. (2010). Teaching children with autism to play a video game using activity schedules and game-embedded simultaneous video modeling. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(3), 351-370.

Carlile, K. A., Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & DeBar, R. M. (2013). Using activity schedules on the iPod touch to teach leisure skills to children with autism. Education & Treatment of Children, 36(2), 33-57.

Carr, J. E., Nicolson, A. C., & Higbee, T. S. (2000). Evaluation of a brief multiple-stimulus preference assessment in a naturalistic context. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33(3), 353-357.

Chan, J. M., Lambdin, L., Van Laarhoven, T., & Johnson J. W. (2013). Teaching leisure skills to an adult with developmental disabilities using a video prompting intervention package. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 48(3), 412-420.

Chazin, K. T., & Ledford, J. R. (2016). Free operant observation. In Evidence-based instructional practices for young children with autism and other disabilities. Retrieved from http://vkc.mc.vanderbilt.edu/ebip/free-operant

Fisher, W. W., Piazza, C. C., Bowman, L. G., & Amari, A. (1996). Integrating caregiver report with a systematic choice assessment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 101(1), 15-25.

Google Search. https://www.google.com/search?q=define+leisure&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-1 (accessed February 5, 2017).

Graff, R. B., & Karsten, A. M. (2012). Assessing preferences of individuals with developmental disabilities: A survey of current practices. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 5(2), 37-48.

MacDuff, G. S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to use photographic activity schedules: Maintenance and generalization of complex response chains. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(1), 89-97.

Schneiter, R., & Devine, M. A. (2001). Reduction of self-injurious behaviors of an individual with autism: Use of a leisure communication book. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 35(3), 207-219.

Toner, N. (2014). How do you figure out what motivates your students? Science in Autism Treatment, 11(1), 12-14.

Please use the following format to cite this article:

McCarron, M. (2018). Leisure skills for adults with autism. Science in Autism Treatment, 15(2), 19-26.


About The Author

Megan McCarron M.S., BCBA, LBA (CT) holds a Master of Science Degree in Child Development, is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst, and Licensed Behavior Analyst in the state of Connecticut. She has been in the field of autism treatment since 1992. Megan has experience providing services for children with autism in school, home and community settings. She has worked at Milestones Behavioral Services (formerly, The Connecticut Center for Child Development, Inc.) since 1999. During her time at Milestones, she has served in various capacities. She started out as an instructor and is now a Clinical Director. In addition to her responsibilities in and around Milestones, Megan presents lectures and workshops on autism and Behavior Analysis at local and national conferences.

How Siblings Of Children With Autism Can Help Improve Behaviors

When I first came across this study, “Behavioral Training for Siblings of Autistic Children,” I was immediately hesitant. There’s something about the idea of sibling-as-therapist that makes me cringe a little bit. When I work with the families of children with autism, the hope is that the siblings of the child with autism still have a childhood without being pushed into the role of caregiver. And I also want the child with autism to have independence and feel like an individual who is heard, which may be more challenging if their siblings are issuing demands just as a parent or teacher would. But as I read the study, I realized that the work they completed had incredible social significance.

In the study, there were three pairs of siblings. The ages of the children with autism ranged from 5 years old to 8 years old. The ages of the siblings ranged from 8 years old to 13 years old. The researchers trained each sibling of a child with autism how to teach basic skills, such as discriminating between different coins, identifying common objects, and spelling short words. As part of this training, the researchers showed videos of one-on-one sessions in which these skills were taught, utilizing techniques such as reinforcement, shaping, and chaining. What the researchers did next was the part that really stood out to me: they discussed with the siblings how to use these techniques in other environments. Finally, the researchers observed the sibling working with their brother/sister with autism and provided coaching on the techniques.

It should be noted here that the goal of the study was not to have the siblings become the teacher of basic skills. Instead, it was to provide a foundation of skills in behavioral techniques for the sibling to use in other settings with the hope of overall improvement in the behaviors of the child with autism. The researchers demonstrated that, after training, the siblings were able to effectively use prompts, reinforcement, and discrete trials to effectively teach new skills. But, perhaps the most meaningful aspects of the study were the changes reported by both siblings and parents. The researchers provide a table showing comments about the sibling with autism before and after the training. One of the most striking comments after the training was, “He gets along better if I know how to ask him” (p. 136). Parents reported that they were pleased with the results and found the training beneficial.

This study provides excellent evidence that structured training for siblings has real potential for making life a little easier for the whole family. The idea isn’t that they become the therapist, but instead that knowledge truly is power.

REFERENCES

Schriebman, L., O’Neill, R.E. & Koegel, R.L. (1983). Behavioral training for siblings of autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 16(2), 129-138.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges

ABA Journal Club #2: A Response from Dr. Amanda Kelly

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. 

Read this month’s discussion questions here!

It is important in our field to maintain an open conversation about ethics. The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code outlines how behavior analysts are expected to conduct themselves, but sometimes situations are not so black and white. And as the world changes, so do the expectations for ethical conduct. In recent years, issues related to social media have been especially relevant. This month, I’ve selected the following article which addresses the special concerns that come up with the use of social media.


The article reviews the codes of ethics for other professions. Why is this valuable for us to do as a profession? Did you learn anything surprising or interesting form this portion of the article?

Any profession runs the risk of becoming too insular if we are not actively pushing ourselves to learn about others and the places where we overlap and intersect. It was interesting to see the parallels, as well as the vast differences, in the ethical codes across professions. It is important to look at the publication dates of each professions ethical code. Codes which were published earlier did not reference social media, for example. This could simply be a reflection of the prevalence of such platforms at the time the codes were written. Some codes were significantly shorter than others and others were substantially longer. The ethical code for Behavior Analysts, as created by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) was more elaborate and offered more detail than other professional code of ethics, which were reviewed for the original article. In some ways, it is not surprising given that behavior analysts as scientists and practitioners pride ourselves on being detail-driven; offering clear, observable and measurable operational definitions for the interventions we design, and the behaviors we measure, and aim to change. It is also important to note that our own ethical code was based on codes and ethical guidance issued by other professions. As noted on the BACB website:

In the original version of the Guidelines for Professional Conduct for Behavior Analysts, the authors acknowledged ethics codes from the following organizations: American Anthropological Association, American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, American Sociological Association, California Association for Behavior Analysis, Florida Association for Behavior Analysis, National Association of Social Workers, National Association of School Psychologists, and Texas Association for Behavior Analysis. We acknowledge and thank these professional organizations that have provided substantial guidance and clear models from which the Code has evolved.

“A search on an internet search engine for information related to a procedure or scientific concept may yield results as to what that procedure or concept is. The same search on a social media outlet may yield results as to whether or not that procedure or concept should be used (p. 47.) Discuss this difference.

As human beings we are influenced by the opinions of others. This is not specific to behavior analysts, though we are also no exception. The difference between an inquiry in an online journal search engine and a social media platform, is scientific journals will yield factual information, whereas an inquiry on a social media platform is likely to result in access to the opinions and impressions of others. When investigating punishment procedures for example on research platforms, one will find information about procedures, which lead to a reduction in a behavior. That same search on a social media platform may result in a discussion about the potential harmful effects of punishment and condemnation against the use of all punishment procedures. That is not to say that opinions and perspectives of others do not matter, they certainly do. The point here is that opinions are opinions, and an opinion is no replacement for an objective investigation.

Behavior analysts and others interested in the topic may turn to social media to get answers to their questions due to the low response effort involved and the speed of reinforcement. How can we decrease response effort and increase reinforcement for referring to the scientific literature to answer our questions?

Information needs to be accessible for people to come into contact with it. ResearchGate is an excellent way for the scientific community to disseminate their findings to the larger community. On this free site, authors can either public post or privately host publications they have written, without being in violation of any copyright laws. Definitely check it out, if you have not already. You will find access to all of my previous publications, as well as the work of many amazing professionals, at your fingertips, without any paywalls.

This is also where social media can really help disseminate science. There are ways to produce scientifically-sound tidbits of information, which can then be shared in online social media platforms. To those who are creating content, include citations, references, and links to the original publication in your posts. For consumers, be critical of the information that is being provided to you, look for the original source. Some professional organizations (Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis [JABA]) are encouraging authors to create short videos (e.g., YouTube) and to host live discussions (e.g., Facebook Live) about their research. Once you are drawn in, read the publications referenced in the posts. You can also consider reaching out to the researcher. If that is something which interests you, social media has given us access to one another like never before. Consider using social media sites to connect with others, who might have otherwise been inaccessible to you. We are no longer limited by snail mail, geographic barriers, or even time zones. The online world allows us to share information in real-time, or at least much more quickly than in the past. We have a fantastic opportunity, possibly even a responsibility, to use this to our advantage.

The authors provide suggestions for how behavior analysts should behave on social media. Are there any suggestions you might add? Are there ways you can increase the likelihood of other behavior analysts following these suggestions?

Behave like your mother is watching (she probably is). Think of potential employers, clients, and colleagues and what they may think. When we engage online we open ourselves up to a larger audience, which is both exciting and anxiety provoking, when you really think about it. It can be exhausting to have to be “professionally appropriate” in what feels like a personal space. There are certainly protections you can put in place: creating a separate professional page, using privacy features, avoid “friending” co-workers, employees, and clients, etc. However, the best piece of information I can give is to think of the online world as one large coffee shop. Would you speak the things you type? Would you say it the same way? Could your words be misunderstood? Have you actively listened, or was it a one-side soliloquy?


Amanda N. Kelly, PhD, BCBA-D, LBA obtained her bachelor’s degree in Elementary Education, her masters of science in Behavioral Education, and her doctorate in Behavior Analysis. Dr. Kelly has experience working as a paraprofessional, a licensed teacher, a school counselor, and behavior analyst. Over the past two decades, Dr. Kelly has worked in-home settings, public and private schools, residential placements, and community settings for children and adolescents who have social-emotional, cognitive, or behavioral needs.

Dr. Kelly has been recognized for her dissemination and advocacy efforts. In 2012, she was awarded the “Jerry Shook Practitioner of the Year” from the Berkshire Association for Behavior Analysis and Therapy (BABAT) and in 2015, she accepted the “Advocacy Group of the Year” award from Autism Speaks, on behalf of the Hawai’i Association for Behavior Analysis (HABA). In 2016, Dr. Kelly became the first behavior analyst licensed in the state of Hawai’i. Dr. Kelly has served on numerous boards and committees and is currently serving as Legislative Chair for the HABA board and as Secretary on the board of the Hawai’i Disability Rights Center (HDRC).

Dr. Kelly’s dedication and commitment in improving access to educational and medical services has resulted in numerous invited speaking engagements throughout the world, including talks in Canada, Japan, London, and and the Philippines. In addition to her expertise helping families and schools, Dr. Kelly’s interests in behavior analysis extend to dissemination, organizational management, public policy, and sustainable behavior change.

Pick of the Week: Timers!

Promotion is valid through March 4th, 2019 at 11:59pm EST. Offer cannot be applied to previous purchases, combined with any other offers, transferred, refunded, or redeemed and/or exchanged for cash or credit. Different Roads to Learning reserves the right to change or cancel this promotion at any time.

ABA Journal Club #2: Ethics and Social Media

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. The following week another ABA professional will respond to Sam’s questions and provide further insight and a different perspective on the piece.

Head to our Facebook page to join the discussion and let us know your thoughts!

It is important in our field to maintain an open conversation about ethics. The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code outlines how behavior analysts are expected to conduct themselves, but sometimes situations are not so black and white. And as the world changes, so do the expectations for ethical conduct. In recent years, issues related to social media have been especially relevant. This month, I’ve selected the following article which addresses the special concerns that come up with the use of social media.

O’Leary, P. N., Miller, M. M., Olive, M. L., & Kelly, A. N. (2017). Blurred lines: Ethical implications of social media for behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice10(1), 45-51 .


  1. The article reviews the codes of ethics for other professions. Why is this valuable for us to do as a profession? Did you learn anything surprising or interesting form this portion of the article?
  1. Since this article was written, our field has a new Professional and Ethical Compliance Code. How does this code differ from the previously used Guidelines for Responsible Conduct? What aspects of the code directly apply to ethical situations related to social media?
  1. “A search on an internet search engine for information related to a procedure or scientific concept may yield results as to what that procedure or concept is. The same search on a social media outlet may yield results as to whether or not that procedure or concept should be used (p. 47.) Discuss this difference.
  1. Behavior analysts and others interested in the topic may turn to social media to get answers to their questions due to the low response effort involved and the speed of reinforcement. How can we decrease response effort and increase reinforcement for referring to the scientific literature to answer our questions?
  1. The authors provide suggestions for how behavior analysts should behave on social media. Are there any suggestions you might add? Are there ways you can increase the likelihood of other behavior analysts following these suggestions?
  1. Consider your own behavior on social media. Based on recommendations from the article, what is one change you can make to increase your own ethical behavior in this context?

WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

The Salad Shoppe: Changing the Landscape of Vocational Training

Unemployment rates in the autism community are alarming, but the number of individuals entering the workforce only continues to grow. This presents an overwhelming challenge for special educators tasked with preparing learners for what is often an uncertain future. Vocational training is essential as learners with autism approach the transition to adulthood.  With this in mind, Nassau Suffolk Services for Autism (NSSA) introduced The Salad Shoppe in the fall of 2017.

The curriculum was developed by Kathryn Reres and Rebecca Chi, devoted special educators determined to ensure dignified and purposeful futures for the eight young adult students in their classroom. The focus was to create a program that would provide functional tasks for each learner based on their individual skills, interests and IEP goals. The result was an innovative vocational training curriculum that highlights the strengths of each participant, introduces new skills into their everyday lives and serves as a profitable social enterprise. 

The Salad Shoppe model requires multiple steps to be taken over the course of two days, including: Tracking and counting money, taking inventory, creating shopping lists, purchasing, food preparation, converting a customer’s order form to food assembly, delivery and clean up. This comprehensive list ensures that every learner has the opportunity to perform a task that is meaningful and functional to them. (The staff at NSSA are reaping the benefits too! Fresh, healthy, personally-delivered lunches each week have been a huge hit.)

In partnership with Different Roads to Learning, the creative teachers who designed The Salad Shoppe for NSSA are sharing their expertise with special educators everywhere. The published curriculum will allow teachers to implement The Salad Shoppe in a way that will best function for the learners they serve. Now more than ever, there is a crucial need to provide young adults with autism with the tools they will need to take on the competitive workforce. The Salad Shoppe is a cutting-edge curriculum that has opened new doors for educators, learners and parents and will continue to change the landscape of vocational training.

Ready to bring The Salad Shoppe to your school? You can save 15% on this incredible program now through February 18th!

Pick of the Week: The Salad Shoppe!

This week, save 15% on our brand new vocational curriculum! Click on the graphic for more details!

Resources For Parents

This month’s ASAT feature comes to us from Peggy Halliday, MEd, BCBA. To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

The following websites include milestones’ checklists, booklets, and a wealth of information to help parents become savvy consumers of autism treatment. The contributors are parent groups well as professional, medical, scientific, and legal and/or advocacy organizations which are available to meet the needs of families.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 

The AAP is an organization of 67,000 pediatricians committed to the well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. The AAP website contains recent information about autism prevalence, links to many external resources and training websites, information about pediatrician surveillance and screening, and early intervention guidelines. This site offers great tools and resources for both pediatricians and families. 

Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) 

The ABAI is a nonprofit professional membership organization whose objective for education is to develop, improve, and disseminate best practices in the recruitment, training, and professional development of behavior analysts. ABAI offers membership to professionals and consumers, which entitles them to a newsletter and other benefits, including event registration discounts, and continuing education opportunities. 

Association of Professional Behavior Analysts (APBA) 

The APBA is a nonprofit professional membership organization that is focused on serving professional practitioners of behavior analysis by promoting and advancing the science-based practice of applied behavior analysis. Membership is open to professional behavior analysts and others who are interested in the practice of ABA, including professionals from various disciplines, consumers, and students. 

Association for Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT)  

The ASAT is a non-profit organization founded in 1998 “to promote safe, effective, science-based treatments for people with autism by disseminating accurate, timely, and scientifically sound information, advocating for the use of scientific methods to guide treatment, and combating unsubstantiated, inaccurate and false information about autism and its treatment.” To serve its mission ASAT provides a comprehensive website which includes Research Synopses of a vast array of autism treatments to help families and organizations make informed choices, as well as specific resources for journalists, medical providers, and parents of newly diagnosed children. ASAT also publishes a monthly online publication, Science in Autism Treatment, with over 12,000 subscribers from all 50 states and over 100 countries. ASAT has Media Watch Initiative that responds quickly to both accurate and inaccurate portrayals of autism treatment in the media, and an Externship Program which includes students, professionals, and family members.

Autism New Jersey (Autism NJ) 

Autism NJ is now the largest statewide network of parents and professionals dedicated to improving the lives of individuals with autism and their families. Since its establishment in 1965, Autism New Jersey’s mission has been to ensure that all individuals with autism receive appropriate services. Autism New Jersey is a nonprofit agency committed to ensuring safe and fulfilling lives for individuals with autism, their families and the professionals who support them through awareness, credible information grounded in science, education, and public policy initiatives. 

The Autism Science Foundation (ASF) 

As well as providing information about autism to the general public and promoting awareness of the needs of individuals and families affected by autism, the Autism Science Foundation’s mission is to support and fund scientists and organizations conducting research into Autism Spectrum Disorder. 

Autism Speaks 

Autism Speaks supports global research into the causes, prevention, treatments, and cure for autism and raises public awareness. The website contains information on resources by state, resources for families, advocacy news, and suggested apps for learners with autism. The Autism Speaks 100 Day Kit for Newly Diagnosed Families of Young Children was created specifically for families of children ages 4 and younger to make the best possible use of the 100 days following their child’s diagnosis of autism.  

Autism Wandering Awareness Alerts Response Education (AWAARE).

This organization has developed three “Big Red Safety Toolkits” to respond to wandering incidents: one for caregivers, one for First Responders, and one for teachers. They are free and downloadable from their website.

Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) 

The BACB is a nonprofit corporation established as a result of credentialing needs identified by behavior analysts, state governments, and consumers of behavior analysis services. Their mission is to develop, promote and implement an international certification program for behavior analysis practitioners. The BACB website contains information for consumers (including a description of behavior analysis), conduct guidelines, requirements for becoming certified and maintaining certification, and a registry of certificants that can be searched by name or state. 

Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies 

The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies website seeks to bring together knowledge and behavior analysis resources, a glossary of behavioral terms, online tutorials and suggestions for effective parenting. A continuing education course series is offered through collaboration with the University of West Florida and is designed to provide instruction in a variety of areas of behavior analysis. To utilize all of the features of the website, you must register.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 

The Act Early website from the CDC contains an interactive and easy-to-use milestones’ checklist you can use to track how your child plays, learns, speaks, acts, and moves ages 3 months through 5 years. The milestones checklist is now available as a free downloadable tracker that follows your child’s progress. There are tips on how to share your concerns with your child’s doctor and free materials that you can order, including fact sheets, resource kits, and growth charts. 

Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates, Inc. (COPAA) 

The Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates is a national American advocacy association of parents of children with disabilities, their attorneys, advocates, and others who support the educational and civil rights of children with disabilities. The website provides important information about entitlements under federal law and is divided into resources for students and families, attorneys, advocates, and related professionals, and a peer to peer connection site. 

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) 

The CEC is an international professional organization dedicated to improving the educational outcomes and quality of life for individuals with exceptionalities. The focus is on helping educators obtain the resources necessary for effective professional practice. Autism is one of many disabilities discussed. 

Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) 

Sponsored by the Institute of Education Services (IES) of the U.S. Dept. of Education, ERIC provides ready access to education literature to support the use of educational research and information to improve practice in learning, teaching, educational decision-making, and research. 

First Signs 

The First Signs website contains a variety of helpful resources related to identifying and recognizing the first signs of autism spectrum disorder, and the screening and referral process. A video glossary is useful in demonstrating how you can spot the early red flags for autism by viewing side-by-side video clips of children with typical behaviors in comparison with children with autism. First Signs aims to lower the age at which children are identified with developmental delays and disorders through improved screening and referral practices. 

Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 

IDEA is a law that ensures services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities. The IDEA website contains information on early intervention services, local and state funding, and Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) issues including evaluation, reevaluation, and procedural safeguards. 

The Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)

IACC coordinates ASD related activities across the United States Health and Human Services Department and the Office of Autism Research. The IACC publishes yearly summary advance updates from the field of autism spectrum disorder.

National Autism Center (NAC) 

The NAC is a nonprofit organization dedicated to disseminating evidence-based information about the treatment of autism spectrum disorder and promoting best practices. Through the multi-year National Standards Project, the NAC established a set of standards for effective, research-validated educational and behavioral interventions. The resulting National Standards Report offers comprehensive and reliable resources for families and practitioners. 

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC) 

In 2014 the NPDC, using rigorous criteria, classified 27 focused interventions as evidence- practices for teaching individuals with autism. This website allows you to access online modules for many of these practices as well as an overview and general description, step-by-step instructions, and an implementation checklist for each of the practices. NPDC is currently in the process of updating the systematic review through 2017 as part of the Clearinghouse on Autism Evidence and Practice. It also has a multi-university center dedicated to the promotion of evidence-based practices for ASD. The Center operates three sites at UC Davis MIND Institute, Waisman Center, and the Franklin Porter Graham Child Development Institute at the University of North Caroline Chapel Hill. Each of these websites delivers a wealth of information including online training modules, resources, factsheets, and more.

NIH National Institutes of Health (NIH) 

The NIH, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research. Helping to lead the way toward important medical discoveries that improve people’s health and save lives, NIH scientists investigate ways to prevent disease as well as researching the causes, treatments, and even cures for common and rare diseases. 

The Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI)

OCALI working in collaboration with the Ohio Department of Education, is a clearinghouse of information on autism research, resources, and trends. The OCALI website contains training and technical assistance including assessment resources and ASD service guidelines.

Organization for Autism Research (OAR) 

OAR is a nonprofit organization dedicated to applying research to the daily challenges of those living with autism. OAR funds new research and disseminates evidence-based information in a form clearly understandable to the non-scientific consumer. The OAR website contains downloadable comprehensive guidebooks, manuals, and booklets for families, professionals, and first responders.  OAR offers recommendations and worksheets for educators and service providers to assist in classroom planning, and a newsletter, “The OARacle.” In conjunction with the American Legion Child Welfare Foundation, OAR also offers Operation Autism for Military Families, a web-based resource specifically designed and created to support military families that have children with autism. 

Rethinkfirst 

Rethink is a global health technology company which provides cloud-based treatment too for individuals with developmental disabilities and their caregivers. Their web-based platform includes a comprehensive curriculum, hundreds of dynamic instructional videos of teaching interactions, step-by-step training modules, and progress tracking features.

Virginia Commonwealth University Autism Center for Excellence 

VCU-ACE is a university-based technical assistance, professional development, and educational research center for autism spectrum disorder in the state of Virginia. VCU-ACE offers a wide variety of online training opportunities for professionals, families, individuals with ASD, and the community at large. The website contains many useful resources, including a series of short how- to videos demonstrating particular evidence-based strategies, webcasts, and online courses. 

Wrights Law 

Wrights Law is an organization which provides helpful information about special education law, education law, and advocacy for children with disabilities in the USA. The Wrights Law website contains an advocacy and law library including articles, cases, FAQs and success stories, and information on IDEA. 

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families

This is a national, nonprofit organization which seeks to inform, educate, and support professionals who influence the lives of infants and toddlers. The organization supports the healthy development and well-being of infants, toddlers, and their families by supplying parents with practical resources that help them connect positively with their babies. They also share information about the Military Families Project, which supplies trainings, information, and resources for military families with young children. 

Please use the following format to cite this article:

Halliday, P. (2016 revised 2019). Consumer Corner: Some resources for parents. Science in Autism Treatment, 13(2), 27-31.


Peggy Halliday, MEd, BCBA, has served as a member of the Board of Directors of ASAT since 2010. She has been a practitioner at the Virginia Institute of Autism (VIA) in Charlottesville, Virginia since 1998. She oversees trainings for parents and professionals and provides consultation to public school divisions throughout Virginia.