Sticking to Clear Sds and Planning Error Correction Procedures

Recently I was supervising a session in which the current goal was for the child to identify cards by category. The teacher was placing three cards in a messy array, and asking “Where’s the animal?” or “Point to the food.”

When the child got it right, the teacher did a great job of providing reinforcement. However, if the student didn’t respond correctly, the conversation might look like this:

TEACHER: What is this? (Pointing to zebra)

STUDENT: No response.

TEACHER: Come on. You know this one.

STUDENT: Horse?

TEACHER: No. You know this one. Remember we did a puzzle earlier with this animal.

STUDENT: Animal?

TEACHER: What animal? Remember the puzzle?

While the intention of the teacher is understandable, this is not an evidence-based error correction procedure. We don’t want our student practicing errors. Often, you might see your student is making the same error over and over. This means there has been in error in our teaching, and we need to make adjustments. Many times, the error is in how we correct errors.

The example described above is one that I commonly see when supervising. Many of our students don’t have strong listening comprehension skills, so continuing to give clues isn’t teaching our student to respond to “What is this?” but is actually teaching them to respond to some other stimulus. The very first recommendation I had as this teacher’s supervisor was to be clear with the discriminative stimulus.

But how should we correct the student’s initial error? There are several commonly used, evidence-based error correction procedures, but the most effective procedures vary from individual to individual. It’s valuable to assess the evidence-based procedure that is most effective for you individual student prior to beginning teaching procedures. This will make your teaching more effective and efficient.

There is a lot of research about error correction procedures for individuals with autism. Carroll, Joachim, St. Peter, & Robinson (2015) clearly outline four commonly used procedures and explain how to assess an individual’s response to each procedure. Carroll, Owsiany, & Cheatham (2018) utilized a short assessment for determining which of five commonly used procedures may work best for a specific individual. Starting with these two articles can clarify how to best move forward with your students or clients.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

Autism Awareness Month Is Over…Unless You’re A Parent

Autism Awareness Month is over, but for many parents of children with autism, awareness is a daily battle. You would think that after decades of research, awareness of what autism  would be more prevalent. But I still talk with parents who are struggling with relatives, friends, or strangers on the street being unaware, (and often incredibly rude,) about Autism.

             One parent I work with recently asked me if I had a stock response for such rude responses. The truth is that even after seventeen years of working with people with autism, I am often at a loss for words when I encounter statements such as “I don’t even think your child has autism. This seems like a discipline issue.” OR “Why aren’t you working on _______ since you’re spending so much time on all of these other behaviors.” So, I turned to some of my colleagues for help.

            Below is a list of some “stock responses” to help out in these awkward, and possibly offensive, conversations.

Response to statements like “Autism isn’t a real thing.”

“Autism is a real thing in our house. We’d be happy to have you come over and see first hand what it is and how it effects our family. In many ways, we need to live differently than we expected, but we have all learned to grow in ways we never expected. “

I think the best answer is probably to refer the person to a resource like Autism Speaks or ASAT. “Thanks for expressing an interest in what we’re doing.  Our strategies are based on scientific principles and are supported by trained professionals.  If you’d like to learn more about what it means, here’s a website you can look at.”  

“Autism is a tricky disorder because sometimes people who have it have strengths in some areas but weaknesses in others.  I know my child may seem just like any other kid, but he’s worked hard to get to this point, and he’s still working hard.”

“It may seem to you like my child is crying/tantrumming/etc. because he’s spoiled or just wants to get his way, but his ability to communicate with others is really impaired, so he gets easily frustrated.  Thanks for your concern, but we’re working on helping him to overcome this.”

I think my response would depend on the day and my mood.  On a BAD day, I might tell (yell at) the person to be thankful they are not faced with the same challenges in their children.  On a more level day, I would attempt to use it as a learning experience and provide a logical response that Autism is a genetic disorder recognized by the Surgeon General and defined in the DSM-V.  That it generally impacts the child’s social and communication skills and can often result in stereotypic motor movements like hand-flapping.  I would go on to tell them about ABA and that there is no known cure.

“Autism is a neurological disorder so his brain works differently than other people. I can send you some info through email if you would like.” (Or end it after the 1st sentence and walk away)

“Thank you for your concern. It really takes a supportive community for us to manage each day.  We prefer to not discuss this with people who don’t understand autism as our time is best spend with our child, rather than explaining ASD to others.”

“Autism isn’t a ‘thing’ – Well, it really is, but it’s a wide spectrum so almost every person with autism is different from any other one you’ve met. That’s why it can be hard to diagnose and treat, because of the wide range of the disability and variability across it.”

“Thanks, but I’d rather not discuss this with you” can go a long way, too!

 

Response to statements like “Why aren’t you working on _______ since you’re spending so much time on all of these other behaviors?”

“We are working tirelessly everyday to improve social behavior, we target the most interfering behaviors first and will systematically work through the list. “

“While _________ is important, there are other things that are more important at this time- _________ won’t matter if the child can’t tell you what he wants or needs. We’ll get to it eventually but only once it shows to be important and interfering with other things. “

“Or, we ARE working on it, but it takes a long time to change behaviors.” (maybe even insert a “You could help us by…”  line)

“Yes we are working on that too. We still have work to do. And how is your…”

 

Response to statements like “What’s his problem anyway?”

“He just learns some things differently and a bit slower than others; but you should see how smart he is in (describe an area of strength).”

“There are some things that really get him mad, but he is getting better and is learning to tell us what the problem is.”

 

Responses to “I’m sorry, but I don’t think my kids can be around your kid. I’m worried about them picking up some of his problem behaviors.”

“I’d say that’s too bad, he’s a great kid and really helps other people in ways that he can; he’s never had a problem with anyone.”

I tried to think of something good and positive, refine to say/write…but you know me…I would give them the middle finger :)”

 

More general advice:

I have worked with a parent who had business cards printed that had 2-3 websites listed on it. When the person started up, the parent handed the card to them and just said something like: “That is a big question that would take too much time to answer here so here are some resources for you to check out.” This allowed them to shut it down but in a way that was not confrontational. 

Remember that you don’t have to say anything, especially when it’s to a stranger. It is perfectly okay not to share personal details about your child’s diagnosis.

So you can see I try to not directly contradict someone saying something; I downplay the concern, reflect back, gently push back, and then stop talking and redirect the conversation if I can.

 

Thank you to Cheryl Davis, Michael Dorsey, Kari Dunlop, Dana Reinecke, Krishna Ruano, Sarah Russell, Erin Stone, and Tom Zane.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

How to Avoid Over-Pathologizing Behaviors in Kids with Autism

A diagnosis of autism can be very challenging for a child and for his or her family. But one of the most difficult aspects of autism is that it is not clear cut what behaviors are related to autism, and what behaviors are related to just being a kid. Every child tantrums sometimes. Every child talks back sometimes. Every child engages in dangerous behavior sometimes.

When I look back on my own childhood, I think of several behaviors I exhibited: in third grade I cut my own hair while my teacher’s back was turned, in fourth grade I got mad at my brother and threw an alarm clock at him, and in seventh grade I loved Agatha Christie books so much that I frequently refused to go outside and sat in my room reading by myself for hours on end. If I had autism, any one of these behaviors may have been pathologized instead of being considered as just a part of growing up.

So how do you parse through all the behaviors your learner is exhibiting and figure out which ones you should actually be worried about? Here are a few questions to ask yourself in determining behaviors to address:

  1. Is the behavior dangerous?
  2. How often and for how long does your learner engage in the behavior?
  3. How different is this behavior from the learner’s same-age peers? For example, does your three year old cry for a couple minutes when told that she can’t have her favorite toy, or does she cry for two hours and refuse to engage with any other toys for the rest of the day?
  4. How is this behavior interfering with the learner’s ability to learn?
  5. How is this behavior interfering with the learner’s ability to engage with peers and family members?
  6. Is the behavior related to a skill? For example, pacing the room and flapping your arms is typically not related to a skill, but building Lego models can be related to a skill. If it is related to a skill, think about ways to provide opportunities for expanding that skill.

The answers to these questions should be able to inform the decisions that you make in intervening with behaviors. And we should remember that above all else, kids with autism are still just kids.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

The Function Wheels

This month’s ASAT feature is a review of the Function Wheels, one of our Different Roads exclusives! To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

Reviewed by
Jen Cote, M.Ed.
David Celiberti, PhD, BCBA-D

Individuals with autism often demonstrate challenging behaviors in home, school, and community settings and, as a result, their service providers develop behavioral interventions to address these challenges. The effectiveness of behavioral interventions is predicated on consistency across people and settings. Aside from inconsistent implementation, one of the primary reasons for the failure of interventions targeting the reduction of challenging behavior is that the intervention does not adequately address the underlying function of the behavior. Behavior intervention plans can be conceptualized in one of three ways:

  • Functionally relevant in which the intervention reflects the underlying function of the challenging behavior;
  • Functionally irrelevant in which the intervention does notreflect the underlying function of the challenging behavior; and
  • Functionally contraindicated in which the intervention includes components that may actually serve to reinforce the challenging behavior (e.g., a time out procedure for a behavior maintained by escape).

Function Wheels is a quick, easy-to-use resource that enables individuals working with students to better understand the underlying function of a student’s behavior and its direct implications for behavioral intervention. Function Wheels is a systematic approach that sequentially guides users through the process of identifying the function of a problem behavior, collecting data on the occurrences of problem behavior, developing a hypothesis based on the pattern of data collected, and implementing research-based interventions for each function. The purpose of the guide is to offer assistance when writing behavior intervention plans, with specific examples laid out in a step-by-step format.

Prior to providing a summary of the contents of this guide, we wanted to share a few cautionary statements with our readers. The Function Wheels is not intended to replace a more in-depth Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) or Functional Analysis (FA) (Amerson, 2014). According to the author, “While Function Wheels is a handy and useful behavioral tool in the management of behavior, careful considerations should also be given when a more-in-depth and formal FBA or FA is warranted. In such cases, information using Function Wheels can be incorporated into the FBA or FA descriptive information”. (A Guide to Behavioral Interventions, pg. 8). Though this guide provides conceptually systematic interventions, the author further recommends that if a multi-variable treatment package is used, which may be required for certain individuals, multiple treatments should be implemented in consultation with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) or licensed professional who possesses the clinical experience to design, implement, monitor, and/or modify the treatment package accordingly (Amerson, 2014).

As with any tool, the effectiveness is directly connected to the integrity and consistency demonstrated during implementation by the user. For this reason, users must be able to objectively assess their own ability and others’ ability to follow each component of the intervention, and determine if they or the other persons have the skills necessary to effectively implement the intervention techniques. All users should be prepared to seek additional support and training if needed, or request consultation with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst or a licensed professional who possesses the clinical experience to train and support others in the implementation of intervention.

Function Wheels Components

The Function Wheels system consists of separate components, meant to work as a whole, to help teachers proactively identify why problem behavior occurs so they can then follow the research-based interventions and strategies provided. The Function Wheels kit includes:

Guide to Behavioral Interventions:

Provides research-based interventions and features conceptually systematic interventions that can be adapted and used as a resource to help identify specific management strategies. The first four sections of the Guide to Behavioral Interventions focus on the four main behavioral functions; behaviors with the function used to obtain attention, behaviors with the function to escape, behaviors with the function to gain access to preferred items, and behaviors maintained by automatic reinforcement. In addition to providing the user with a general knowledge of what the behaviors may look like, the authors also provide examples of how the behaviors may be displayed during specific environmental conditions or situations for different age ranges. When developing a behavior intervention plan, it is critical to match the intervention to the function of the behavior, or reason the behavior is being exhibited. If the function of the behavior is not determined, the intervention implemented could be ineffective or counterproductive.

This guide provides the user with intervention strategies for each function of problem behavior. Each intervention discussed throughout the guide has a brief overview of the history of the intervention and examples of the interventions being implemented. Intervention strategies for the four function areas include, but are not limited to: non-contingent reinforcement/attention, time-out, behavior contract/ contingency contracting, reinforcement of successive approximations, contingent sensory access/breaks, sensory extinction, non-contingent reinforcement, and differential reinforcement of other behaviors. Research provided for the interventions ranges from 1969 to 2013. As the author mentioned, this guide is not intended to list all possible interventions, only to provide a sample of interventions available. As research in this field continues to grow, the research basis for the underlying techniques can be expanded upon to reflect the advancements that have been made in the field.

Procedural steps are written out under the intervention. The procedural steps provide the reader with the sequence in which the intervention should be implemented. These procedures include data collection, environmental setup, and reinforcement and consequence dependent on behavioral response. In addition, the author also includes a Key Notes section, which provides the user with additional knowledge of directions/instructions to be considered when implementing the particular intervention.

User Guide:
The User Guide describes how to use the Function Wheels system, step-by-step. Before determining any functions or implementing any interventions, it is essential for the user to feel comfortable with their abilities, and have a solid understanding of all the pieces to this kit. As mentioned previously, it is noted that when looking at the User Guide, the sequence of the steps would lead one to believe that Writing Descriptive Notes (step 5) would take place after the function has been calculated (step 4). In order to determine the function of a behavior, one must fully evaluate the description of the behavior, the antecedent (triggering event) and the consequence (maintaining event). This would be followed by the identification of the function.

Function Wheel:
A double-sided wheel feature eight research-based conditions. One side of the wheel displays antecedent conditions and the other side displays consequent conditions. Turning the wheel allows each user to align an environmental event with the function(s) of the behavior. The smaller, inner wheel represents the presence of a behavior (attention, escape, tangible, automatic), while the larger, outer wheel represents the environmental event, or condition, that triggered and/or maintained the behavior. The function wheel is designed to be a straightforward way of determining the function behind a problem behavior; however, in order to prevent any confusion, it would be helpful to differentiate the side of the wheel designed to help identify the trigger from the side designed to help identify the maintaining event.

Student Screening Sheet: 
Provides a template for tracking each incident of the problem behavior. The Student Screening Sheet allows for up to 15 behavioral events to be recorded. Fifteen recordings across at least three observations are recommended to provide an adequate sample to help identify the function of the problem behavior. The Student Screening Sheet has three distinct sections: Description of Observable Behavior, Functional Categories, and Descriptive Notes (detailed information about the antecedent and consequent condition for each observable behavior recorded). Though the Student Screening Sheet offers its user a simplistic way to track data on behavior, the arrangement of the screening tool could mislead one to believe the function of the behavior is determined prior to examining antecedent variable and consequent/maintaining variable. When in fact, the function of a behavior should not be determined prior to the examination of all variables.

Intervention Wheels:
The four Intervention Wheels are Attention, Escape, Tangible, and Automatic. The specific Intervention Wheeldirectly related to the identified function provides recommended research-based treatments across 6 intervention areas. In addition to providing the user with research-based treatments across the intervention areas, the authors have placed ‘Facts to Remember’ on the front of each Intervention Wheel. The facts offer broad tips that are beneficial when working with any behavior despite the function, but it may be more beneficial to connect function. Although this guide provides conceptually systematic interventions, the author further recommends that if a multi-variable treatment package is used, which may be required for certain individuals, multiple treatments are implemented in consultation with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst or licensed professional who possesses the clinical experience to design, implement, monitor, and/or modify the treatment package accordingly (Amerson, 2014).

Utilizing the Function Wheels System

The Function Wheels system can be used two ways, the Function Wheels Brief Method or the Function Wheels Extended Method. Both methods can be utilized by any individual working with students. The Function Wheels Brief Method includes collecting data using the Student Screening Sheet to capture functions of behaviors as they occur, then based on the information obtained, proceeding to the corresponding Intervention Wheel to read about interventions which could minimize the occurrence of problem behavior and reduce any unwanted, inadvertent, or unintentional reinforcement of the problem behavior. A limitation of the Brief Method noted by the author, involves careful consideration of the tentative hypothesis formed about the function as it is not verified prior to intervention when the Brief Method is employed.

The second method, Function Wheels Extended Method utilizes the same framework but with more detail. Time is taken to meet as a team to define the target behavior and discuss data collection. Following the data collection process, the team meets again to discuss and analyze the variables associated with the unwanted problem behavior, determine the behavior’s function, and what potential interventions can be employed. The difference between the two methods is the time spent collecting data, which during the Extended Method takes place over several sessions or days. This will allow for confirmation or provide the team with an opportunity to test the hypothesis regarding the function(s) of the student’s challenging behavior and more importantly, to engage in a validation process prior to the start of any intervention.

Conclusion

The Function Wheels kit is an easy-to-use resource that provides service providers who have a basic knowledge of learning principles and the communicative intent of challenging behavior and its functions with a way to quickly determine appropriate interventions for problem behaviors based on the function of the behavior. For effective implementation of behavior intervention plans, it is essential for the user to have clinical knowledge and experience, or access to working directly with a more qualified professional. A concern with the utilization of this kit with those who are less experienced or knowledgeable would be the counterproductive effects it can have on students who are already struggling. Secondly, the research basis underlying techniques includes many citations from decades ago, which may give the reader the impression that no other research has been published related to that intervention and that the field has not advanced. Nonetheless, the responsible use of the Function Wheels kit may aide in the quick and effective identification of functions and a comprehensive array of interventions that would benefit many students. We applaud the author for compiling this resource in such an innovative and meaningful manner. For more information, please visit the website for Different Roads to Learning.

 

Please use the following format to cite this article:

Cote, J., & Celiberti, D. (2016). Resource reviews: Review of “The Function Wheels” Science in Autism Treatment, 13(4), 34-37.


About The Authors

Jennifer Cote, M.Ed.

Jennifer received an undergraduate degree in Mental Health and Human Services from the University of Maine Augusta in 2010. Working at a residential facility with adolescents diagnosed with autism sparked an interest in this population. In 2011 she switched her field to Special Education and earned her teaching certification, and completed a Master’s Degree through University of Southern Maine in Special Education in 2017.  After becoming interested in Applied Behavior Analysis Jennifer is currently working toward completing the requirements to sit for the BCBA exam. She enjoys enjoy working with children and watching them grow and develop. She continues to teach Special Education.

David Celiberti, PhD, BCBA-D

David is the part time Executive Director of ASAT and Past-President, a role he served from 2006 and 2012. He is the Co-Editor of ASAT’s newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Rutgers University in 1993. Dr. Celiberti has served on a number of advisory boards and special interest groups in the field of autism, applied behavior analysis, and early childhood education, and been an active participant in local fundraising initiatives to support after school programming for economically disadvantaged children. He works in private practice and provides consultation to public and private schools and agencies in underserved areas. He has authored several articles in professional journals and presents frequently at regional, national, and international conferences. In prior positions, Dr. Celiberti taught courses related to applied behavior analysis (ABA) at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, supervised individuals pursuing BCBA certifications, and conducted research in the areas of ABA, family intervention, and autism.

Positive Reinforcement Strategies For Bedtime

“Dear Behavior BFF, bedtime is the absolute worst time of day. I dread putting my kids to bed because they draw everything out with so much drama! They argue, complain, cry, you name it! Why is it so hard? Can you help us?”

Unfortunately, you are not alone in this one. Bedtime can be hard for so many kids and parents (me included!).

We could spend all day guessing why our kiddos fight going to bed. Do they have FOMO (fear of missing out) on what parents do after they go to bed? Are they not tired enough? Are they too tired? Are their pajamas truly itchy? Is there really a scary shadow of a monster on the wall? But those questions don’t guide us to a solution to deal with this daily problem.

Instead- let’s look at it from a solution-based perspective. What would a solution look like for you? What behaviors are you looking to increase at bedtime?

Sample target behaviors (the things you are trying to get your kids to do MORE of):

  • Finish pre-bed routines with minimal reminders
  • Follow directions with 1 or 2 reminders
  • Use a quiet voice
  • Only come out of your room 1 time after bedtime
  • Ask nicely for things
  • Read or play quietly if you aren’t ready to go to sleep

So what can we do to increase these behaviors in our homes each evening? Try some evidence-based positive reinforcement strategies!

Premack principle: FIRST (do the unpreferred task), THEN (get a reinforcer).

The FIRST needs to be clear and direct. Tell your child what the target behavior is. What CAN they do right now to earn reinforcement? The THEN needs to be worth it for your child. Choose a quality reinforcer or better yet- let your kiddo(s) choose!

  • FIRST use a quiet voice at bedtime, THEN we can sing a song together.
  • FIRST stay in your room until 7am, THEN you can watch a TV show in the morning.
  • FIRST follow directions at bedtime, THEN choose a toy to take to bed with you.

Token Economy: A structured reinforcement system where your child earns tokens (stickers, marbles, points) to exchange for a big reinforcer when enough have been earned. Steps to using a token economy to make bedtime easier may include the following:

  1. Choose specific target behaviors. Tell your child 1-3 things they CAN and should do at bedtime instead of problem behavior.
  2. Give the token (sticker on a sticker chart, marble in a marble jar, points on a point sheet, etc) every time your child does these desired bedtime behaviors.
  3. When they reach their goal- let them use their tokens to ‘buy’ the big reinforcer!

To be successful, be consistent. Give a token every time your kiddo does one of the desired behaviors. Be clear- make sure your children know what the desired behaviors are. Don’t set the goal too high to start with. Help your children to be successful to get them on board with the plan!

No matter what evidence-based strategy you choose, be consistent with it. Give reinforcement as immediately as possible. Catch your children being good and give high-quality reinforcers!

References

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis.

Homme, L. E., Debaca, P. C., Devine, J. V., Steinhorst, R., & Rickert, E. J. (1963). Use of the Premack principle in controlling the behavior of nursery school children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). The token economy: A decade later. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(3), 431-445.

Kazdin, A. E. (Ed.). (1977). The token economy: A review and evaluation. Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Knapp, T. J. (1976). The Premack principle in human experimental and applied settings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14(2), 133-147.

This piece originally appeared on www.bSci21.com. 


About The Author 

Leanne Page, MEd, BCBA, is the author of Parenting with Science: Behavior Analysis Saves Mom’s Sanity. As a Behavior Analyst and a mom of two little girls, she wanted to share behavior analysis with a population who could really use it- parents!

Leanne’s writing can be found in Parenting with Science and Parenting with ABA as well as a few other sites. She is a monthly contributor to bSci21.com , guest host for the Dr. Kim Live show, and has contributed to other websites as well.

Leanne has worked with children with disabilities for over 10 years. She earned both her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Texas A&M University.  She also completed ABA coursework through the University of North Texas before earning her BCBA certification in 2011. Leanne has worked as a special educator of both elementary and high school self-contained, inclusion, general education, and resource settings.

Leanne also has managed a center providing ABA services to children in 1:1 and small group settings. She has  extensive experience in school and teacher training, therapist training, parent training, and providing direct services to children and families in a center-based or in-home therapy setting.

Leanne is now located in Dallas, Texas and is available for: distance BCBA and BCaBA supervision, parent training, speaking opportunities, and consultation. She can be reached via Facebook or at Lpagebcba@gmail.com.