Improving Time-Out Procedures

Time-out is often a hotly-debated topic. Is it too punishing? Where should it take place? How long should it last? There are not easy answers to many of these questions. But there are some evidence-based suggestions that may improve a time out procedure should you decide to use one.

  • First, know the function of the behavior! If the child is engaging in the undesirable behavior for escape, then providing “time out” will likely increase the behavior. For instance, if a child gets sent out of the classroom each time he curses, this is effectively a time out from classwork. He may curse because in the past, cursing resulted in escaping from classwork. This is an instance when you would not want to use time out. A time-out may prove to be effective for behaviors that function for attention or access to tangibles. More on that next…
  • Consider a nonexclusion time-out procedure. In the past, we’ve discussed the time-out ribbon here. This is a useful tool for signaling to a learner that they have access to social or tangible reinforcers. If they engage in an inappropriate behavior, the ribbon is removed and they do not have access to social or tangible reinforcers, however they are still able to participate in the lesson or activity you have organized. It also allows them to practice more appropriate behaviors to earn the ribbon back. If the ribbon isn’t the best visual cue for your learner, you could make it anything this is visible for them and clearly delineates when they do and do not have access to reinforcement.
  • Consider the use of a release contingency. This means that a learner is unable to leave time out until a predetermined amount of time has passed without problem behavior. Perhaps if you’re working with a preschool child who has been kicking other children, the release contingency might be that they must sit with “quiet feet” or “feet on the floor” for one full minute before they can go back to play. Your other option is to put in a fixed time contingency, which is best done by setting some sort of timer so the learner can see how much time is remaining in time-out.
  • Combine time out with positive reinforcement procedures. Time-out by itself may result in decreases in behavior only when time out is a possibility. For instance, you may see a decrease in the problem behavior only when the child’s mother is at home, because the father doesn’t use time out. The goal is to decrease the problem behavior across all settings and activities. To that end, it’s helpful to teach appropriate replacement behaviors and reinforce the learner for engaging in those behaviors.

WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

How To Prepare To Reinforce Appropriate Behavior

Often when we’re working with children with autism there are two areas we focus on: communication and play. However, due to the nature of your day or a specific activity, you may unintentionally punish spontaneous communication or play. So before we learn how to prepare to reinforce appropriate behavior, let’s consider a couple of examples:

Julie is a teacher in a first grade classroom with six children with autism. One of her students is Marcos, who rarely uses spontaneous language. While Julie is running the morning meeting, Marcos suddenly interrupts and says “I like elephants.” Julie says, “It’s quiet time, right now, Marcos.”

David is a teacher in a fourth grade inclusion classroom. Jaylene is a student with autism who rarely initiates interactions. He is speaking with another teacher when Jaylene approaches with a puppet, hands it to David, and says “puppet.” David tells her, “In just a minute, Jaylene.”

In both of these instances, the teacher has not done anything wrong. In fact, we have all done this from time to time in the midst of busy days in which we’re managing multiple tasks. But there’s an argument to be made here that both Marcos and Jaylene missed opportunities for reinforcement of the behaviors we most want them to exhibit.

One thing that can help is to prioritize your goals. If the primary goal for Marcos is to use spontaneous language, then when we start out we want to provide a continuous rate of reinforcement. This means that it will sometimes interrupt other tasks, but if it is the biggest priority, that’s okay! The long term gains of reinforcing Marcos’s spontaneous language likely outweigh the frustration of an interrupted lesson.

The second thing that can help is communicating the priorities to other adults and staff. If David lets other teachers and administrators know that Jaylene’s foremost goal is to initiate interactions related to play, then a brief interruption in a conversation should not be an issue. Again, the long term gains of reinforcing Jaylene’s initiation of play likely outweigh any issues around an interrupted conversation.

Finally, try to plan ahead. Think about instances in which the child is most likely to engage in the targeted behaviors and talk with staff about how to ensure reinforcement takes place. The last thing we want to do is to unintentionally punish the desired behaviors.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA
Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

Running behaviors? Tips for Making Your Class & School Safe

If you have a runner in your classroom, you don’t need a gym membership and have long ago put away those cute wedges. Every time the door opens you head jerks around to make sure it isn’t your little guy. The starbucks barista has your venti triple shot ready for you every morning before you get there. A lot of us have been there. From our kid’s perspective, running is effective. Whether it’s to get attention, escape a task, or find that keyboard in the music teachers room – it works most of the time. When looking at these behaviors, we of course want to analyze the function (or the why) behind the behavior when developing interventions. Interventions will definitely include teaching some type of replacement behavior. Today let’s also look at what else you can be doing while these interventions start to take shape.

Running is a scary behavior and potentially dangerous behavior because your student could get outside of the school. He could get lost, hit by a car, or walk into a stranger’s home. If your child or student has these types of behaviors, your mind has definitely gone to these worst case scenarios. I remember losing sleep regularly thinking about a student who had high frequency running behavior and stressing like crazy over what would happen if he ever got out of the school.

Keep them in your class. This is really the golden rule when it comes to runners. Do whatever you can to keep them in your room. Once that foot gets one inch outside your door, all bets are off. Once they are outside your room, you are chasing them and they are loving it. You’ve completely reinforced the inappropriate behavior but you had no choice. You had to keep them safe. Some schools may have systems set up with different staff at different spots in the hallway or building so you can avoid that. But unfortunately many of our classrooms don’t have that much staff to do that. The number one goal is keeping them safe, so do whatever you have to do to get them once they leave your room. But the goal is avoiding that. The goal is keeping them in your room where you can be teaching replacement behaviors.

In the effort to keep them in your room, think obstacles. Go through your student’s schedule and make sure that at every single point of the day there is not a direct pathway to the door. When I do behavior consults, the teacher and I literally do this together. We walk around the room and go to every single spot the student will be at. Sometimes you forget about a specific center or time of day when the student is very close to the door. You classroom may look like a maze. That’s okay. That’s actually good. A maze means it will take your student 4 seconds instead of 2 seconds to get to the door and the extra 2 seconds may be enough to prevent that escape. Use furniture and dividers to create zig zag pathways around your room. I know it’s tempting to do something potentially unsafe like put a lock on the door – but it’s majorly breaking fire code so steer clear of that. If you have two doors in your room, block one up completely so you only have to worry about one.

Have a super clear and straightforward schedule of who is in charge of this student at all times of day. Make sure the transition handoff is clear. Clarify with staff what they should do if they need to go to the bathroom or get up to get a pencil when working with this student. Make sure the goal is clear to everyone – keep him in the room.

If they do get out – minimize the attention component. Sometimes we are doing everything right, working on analyzing the function of the behavior, teaching a replacement response, added in loads of preventative interventions keep the student in your classroom – and life happens and you blink and your student is halfway down the hallway. As we talked about, yes you are going to run after him to get him because above everything safety is important. But minimize the attention that goes into this. Picture two scenarios: 1 – Johnny runs down the hallway. Three adults start running after him, one of them yelling. They catch up to him. One adult yells to the other, “got him.” Another adult, starts lecturing Johnny on we he shouldn’t be running. The three adults walk him back together talking amongst themselves about how fast they are getting. They re-enter the classroom and announce to everyone in the room loudly, “he one got to the end of the hallway.” Basically it’s a circus. I see this ALL the time. And it’s unintentional. None of those adults wake up thinking let’s turn Johnny’s behaviors into a parade today, but it happens. We get scared, adrenaline is rushing, and we don’t have a clear plan in place. Let’s rework this scenario. Johnny runs. One adult makes eye contact with another adult in the classroom and says, “I’m on it.” One adult runs after him, another waits in the doorway of the classroom to watch. When the adult gets him, she says nothing and walks him back to the classroom. He goes back to the exact task he was doing before without any eye contact or talking/lecturing. Attention was minimal. Attention may be a function for many of these behaviors so even though we have to give attention by chasing we can minimize the magnitude of the attention. 

Know where all the school exits are. Seems obvious but I worked in a school for ten years and honestly still didn’t know where all of the exits are. Really old buildings have a seemingly endless amount of hidden doors to the outside. I finally had the school engineer walk me around the basement so I could find them all. Once you know where the main exits are, you can divide and conquer with staff. If your student is running the direction of an exit, one staff member can run ahead to that door or go meet him where the door opens outside. #themoreyouknow

Have a plan with the security guards for the worst case scenario. You guys know I’m all about having an emergency plan in place and you likely already have one with your classroom staff (if you don’t – make one!). But take that emergency plan beyond just your classroom staff. Work with your school’s security guards to get them in the loop. If that horrible worst case scenario happens and your student does somehow get out of the building, what is the plan? We tend to avoid making a plan for this because we think it never will happen. Agreed, plan for it never happening. But just in case at the rare, rare, rare chance it does – you will be much better off with a plan in place.

Use Walkie Talkies with key people through the school. Walkie talkies can be your saving grace here. Many schools already have a system of walkie talkies in place and if you aren’t part of – get part of it. If you student has left the classroom, you will be much more efficient getting him back to the class if you can alert 8 people throughout the building of it versus doing it yourself. If you school doesn’t use walkie talkies, approach your admin about getting a set for your classroom staff and a few key people through the building (security guards, secretary, etc.).

This piece was originally posted at The Autism Helper


About The Author

Sasha Long, BCBA, M.A., is the founder and president of The Autism Helper, Inc. She is a board certified behavior analyst and certified special education teacher. After ten years of teaching in a self-contained special education classroom, Sasha now works full time as a consultant, writer, and behavior analyst. Sasha manages and writes The Autism Helper Blog, as a way to share easy to use and ready to implement strategies and ideas. Sasha also travels internationally as a speaker and consultant providing individualized training and feedback to parents, educators, therapists and administrators in the world of autism. She is currently an adjunct professor in the school of Applied Behavior Analysis at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Sasha received her undergraduate degree in Special Education from Miami University and has a Masters Degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Contact Sasha at sasha.theautismhelper@gmail.com.

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Social Emotional Learning: Hallmarks Of Skill Development

By: Michael C. Selbst, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Behavior Therapy Associates & HI-STEP
Co-Author of POWER-Solving Curriculum

“Mom and Dad, can Emma come over to play?”
“Do you want to play together at recess?”
“Can I ride bikes with Noah?”
“We want to go the movies later, is that okay?”
“I’m meeting my friend for lunch. See you later.”

For many families and within many schools, these are familiar questions and comments heard among people trying to engage in typical social interactions; however, individuals with weaknesses in social emotional learning (SEL) commonly have difficulties with social awareness, understanding social cues, perspective taking, social initiation, social problem-solving, anger management, reciprocal conversation, and play skills.

Such deficits may result in trouble developing and maintaining friendships, avoidance of interactions, anxiety and depression, and difficulties across multiple settings. Additionally, SEL is critical for successful transitioning to adulthood, independence, and employment. We know that employers often value SEL as much, if not more, than the job skills, and such SEL skills are important for job interviews, showing up at work, navigating challenges, and managing daily workplace responsibilities,

The long-term impact of SEL is dramatic (Jones, Greenberg, & Crowley, 2015), including statistically significant associations among SEL skills measured when children were in kindergarten and critical outcomes for success in adulthood. These include mental health, education, employment, criminal activity, and substance use.

So how do we begin to teach SEL? Fortunately, like reading and math, SEL can be taught through direct instruction. There needs to be a systematic plan at the heart of successful programming, one which includes:

  • Targeting specific skills
  • Setting aside time to teach
  • Using a 3-D approach (discuss the skill, demonstrate the skill, do the skill through practice)
  • Noticing and reinforcing appropriate social skills (praising the behavior: “Great job asking your friends to play!”)
  • Fostering generalization through sharing strategies with all adults working with the individual (family members, staff, employer, job coach)
  • Monitoring progress

Direct instruction / teaching of SEL can include whole-class or small-group instruction, pull-out social skills groups, lunch bunches, dyad work, morning meetings, etc. It can also be embedded throughout the day, priming students prior to activities / transitions, incidental teaching, within specials areas, supports during lunch and recess, vocational training, and within small or large group activities. The day should begin with SEL components, including greeting students on and off the bus and upon entering the school building and classroom, and ensuring that they feel safe, cared for, and comfortable.

The SEL plan needs to be monitored, with results analyzed and shared. Everyone involved should share success stories, receive updates, and continue collaborating.

Maya Angelou once said, “I’ve learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.” It is important to help people experience success, engage in meaningful life activities, and feel valued and important. Ultimately, the recipe for successful SEL requires a plan adhering to evidence-based approaches, careful blending of teamwork, and sustained efforts. Together we can make a difference.

Looking for social skill solutions? Select guides and workbooks from the POWER-Solving Social Skills Curriculum are on sale now through August 20th!


Michael C. Selbst, Ph.D., BCBA-D is Director of Behavior Therapy Associates in Somerset, New Jersey. He is a Licensed Psychologist and a Certified School Psychologist in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Dr. Selbst is also a Board Certified Behavior Analyst at the Doctoral Level. He has co-founded and is the Executive Director of HI-STEP® Summer Social Skills Program. He has co-authored Behavior Problems Resource Kit: Forms and Procedures for Identification, Measurement and Intervention; and co-authored (with Dr. Steven Gordon) the POWER-Solving® Social Skills Curriculum: Stepping Stones to Solving Life’s Everyday Social Problems.

 

Posted in ABA

National Autism Conference 2018!

Last week, Different Roads had the pleasure of being part of the National Autism Conference at Penn State. There were 1400 attendees from all over the country, from parents to educators and practicing behaviorists.

“The Autism Conference provides comprehensive, evidence-based information to assist educators, other professionals, and families in developing effective educational programming for all students with autism spectrum disorders”.

In other words, we were surrounded and embraced by the community that shares our commitment and mission.

We met so many wonderful people, from those who shared our exhibition room to those who ran the event. Thank you to Mike Miklos for his guidance and kindness. We were also delighted to see Vince Carbone and Katherine Croce among many other knowledgeable experts.

It was remarkable to be able to talk to people on the front lines of autism education, to hear their views, their challenges and their needs.

It touched us to see firsthand the dedication of the behaviorists and teachers working to help their students with language and behavior – you could see and hear their commitment to the autism community. We also witnessed parents raising their children with ASD with an upbeat sense of humor and great hope in bringing their children into the mainstream.

We were delighted to have been a part of this wonderful and educational event, and look forward to returning in 2019!

Pairing auditory stimuli in your reinforcement

            Using a consistent, auditory stimulus as part of your reinforcement strategy can be a powerful addition for improving behaviors. It allows for students to be reinforced without necessarily looking at you, which can be great if you are providing reinforcement for remaining on task or independently completing a task. Here are a few examples of auditory stimuli you may consider pairing with your reinforcement.

            Token Towers – If you are using some sort of a token system, the Token Tower might be a great option. As opposed to token systems that require the use of Velcro tokens (such as stars or happy faces) or a written system, the token tower is plastic. When a token is earned, your student hears it hitting the bottom of the tube.

            ClassDojo – There are a lot of great features in ClassDojo. Not only does ClassDojo have a specific sound associated with earning points for various tasks, it also has a different sound for losing a point. You can communicate a lot without interrupting the class, and students understand what is happening simply from a brief auditory stimulus.

            TAGTeach – This is a neutral auditory stimulus that is paired with reinforcement so the student can learn that the stimulus means “you did a great job” or “nice work!” The auditory stimulus can then be used on it’s own as a reinforcer. It allows you to reinforce at the very moment the behavior happens, which is incredibly important because positive behaviors increase when they are reinforced immediately.

            What types of auditory stimuli do you use in your reinforcement strategies?


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.