ABA Journal Club # 6: A Response From Robyn Catagnus, EdD, LBS, BCBA-D and Elizabeth Hughes Fong, M.A., BCBA, LBS

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. The following week another ABA professional will respond to Sam’s questions and provide further insight and a different perspective on the piece.

This month’s response comes from Robyn Catagnus, EdD, LBS, BCBA-D and Elizabeth Hughes Fong, M.A., BCBA, LBS. Sam’s original blog can be seen here.

  • How does Skinner’s definition of culture differ from how you typically consider culture?

Fong: I think that Skinner did a nice job of linking a person’s actions and beliefs within the context of their environment.  At times, I feel it’s an oversimplification of a term, and behavior analysts should explore (on a deeper level) what that means. It defines culture, but lacks in helping us to understand it, or on a more practical level, what this means for our practice of ABA. I’m in agreement that our histories and the contingencies that we come into contact with shape who we are.  But as clinicians, what does this mean? When I think of culture, I consider things like history, contingencies and the environment in which the person operates, but I also try to draw out more information about what this means for my work as a clinician – if at all.  Culture is deep and rich, and sometimes I feel that relying on just Skinner’s definition doesn’t take all this into consideration. We can take that as a starting point, on how to conceptualize culture, but we need to go further into truly trying to understand what it is. Some interesting articles to review on the topic are: Muchon de Melo, C., & de Rose, J. C. (2013). The concept of culture in skinnerian Radical Behaviorism: Debates and controversies. European Journal of Behavior Analysis14(2), 321-328; Glenn, S. S. (2004). Individual behavior, culture, and social change. The Behavior Analyst27(2), 133-151.

  • Have you encountered situations in which by cultural contingencies impacted an intervention you planned? What might you have done differently if you could go back in time?

Catagnus: I’d like to share the story of two of my colleagues, Stacee Leatherman and Ashley Knochel. They are both doing really important work in this area that exemplifies this issue. And, you’ll likely see their papers on the topics published soon, so this will be a preview. Stacee was a therapist working with a family from a different country that had immigrated to her local area. She reported at a recent ABAI conference event that she felt ill-prepared by her behavior analytic training to adequately assess and intervene in a culturally appropriate way. The family ultimately left ABA services, and Stacee went to the literature to see what their consulting group could have done to better serve the family. She found almost no relevant empirical research in ABA journals that addressed implementation or culturally adapted interventions with non-Western families of children with Autism. We recently submitted a manuscript presenting her findings and making some recommendations of our own.

Leatherman, S., Catagnus, R. M., Brown, T. W., Moore, J., Torres, I. (2019). A systematic review of strategies to improve treatment services provided by cross-cultural practitioners working with individuals with autism spectrum disorder. (Manuscript in preparation).

Ashlee, along with co-researchers, has conducted one of the rare empirical studies of ABA with non-Western learners (and is submitting this manuscript soon). She was working in Ghana at a school for children with ASD. She helped the teachers implement a common behavior analytic technique, behavior specific praise. She did so in a way that is typical here in her culture in the US, in terms of using language to label the behavior, specifically, vocally, and with excitement. For cultural reasons, the way she’d learned to conduct the procedure in her culture caused a decrease in the desired behavior of working on task! So, she met with the stakeholders in the setting, engaged in culturally sensitive and humble question asking, and was able to collaboratively identify why the commonly used approach was not culturally appropriate or helpful – why it was detrimental to learning. Together, they revised the way the reinforcement was delivered, assured it was culturally correct, and the on-task behavior improved, and the staff reported feeling that Ashley’s interactions were culturally relevant. The outcome, and consultation process, was impactful. This is some of the first empirical data I’ve seen to explain how ABA interventions repeated ‘the way we learned to do them in our own culture’ can negatively impact those we service if we don’t approach the planning and implementation in a culturally interactive and open way.

Knochel, A., Blair, K. C., Sofarelli, R. (2019). Culturally focused classroom staff training to increase praise for Ghanaian students with autism spectrum disorders. (Manuscript in preparation).

  • Do you currently engage in any of the suggestions the authors provide for self-reflection? What has been your experience with self-reflection?

Catagnus: I regularly engage in self-reflection in the forms of mindfulness practice and formal meditation. In fact, I developed a mindfulness and ABA course at TCSPP and get to regularly talk about this with our students. I think and talk about my own cultural frameworks and background regularly, too, because of the types of research and implementation we conduct for culturally relevant pedagogy at the University. Luckily, the work that I do is immersive in terms of cultural topics, and I continue to develop my self-awareness. I also seek out experiences of diversity, by traveling, engaging in study abroad programs for myself and creating them for my students. I’ve worked with amazing local early educators in South Africa, visited cultural and academic sites in Denmark, taken classes in Spain, and am about to do visit Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, and Qatar. Developing relationships with people around the world has helped me stay reflective and to grow personally and professionally. Learning never stops for this process.

  • Do your current functional assessments incorporate cultural variables? If not, what can you change to improve your functional assessment process?

Fong: I do not think most FAs incorporate cultural variables. While the principles of ABA might be considered to be universal, the way in which we complete an FA is very Eurocentric.  Most of the places I have worked at present the FAI in English and if another language is required a translator is used. The translator may or may not have the clinical understanding to accurately communicate the question. Also, some of the questions are more direct, closed ended.  Some culture may do better by telling a story. Generally, there are no questions that directly address culture – for example, preference on pronouns, holidays, languages used, the role of the clinician in the family’s mind, background information about caretakers, what behaviors are reinforced/valued by a culture and which are not, etc.  I think incorporating things like this, into FAs would help to make them more culturally sensitive. Maybe each culture, create their own? I will ask clients if there is thing anything else that they feel that I should know, which might be relevant to intervention. Sometimes I prompt for information about language, holidays, manners, norms, preferences, etc. A good article on the topic is: Tanaka-Matsumi, J., Seiden, D. Y., & Lam, K. N. (1996). The Culturally Informed Functional Assessment (CIFA) Interview: A strategy for cross-cultural behavioral practice. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice3(2), 215-233.

  • One of the recommendations by the authors is to use readily available resources. What resources are available to you? How can your organization better provide resources to help behavior analysts address cultural variables?

Fong: I like this family therapy book – McGoldrick, M., Giordano, J., & Garcia-Preto, N. (Eds.). (2005). Ethnicity and family therapy. Guilford Press. The Special Interest Groups (SIG) of ABAI are another good resource, I’ve found that people are responsive if you email them questions.  There is also the Culture and Diversity SIG of ABAI. I also tend to look outside the ABA, to fields such as psychology, who have done a superior job addressing the need to examine the role that culture plays in treatment. Recently, there has been an increase in behavior analytic articles and presentations addressing culture, so I try to read those.           

Catagnus: TCSPP has an institutional learning outcome related to diversity, so we embed learning, resources, assignments and outcome measures throughout our program. It is a deeply held value and a strong focus of our program. For this reason, our students often research topics related to culture, diversity, and inclusion. They have access to carefully curated curricular materials like articles, books, lectures, and tutorials on many different related topics. Our classes are regularly evaluated and updated to represent more global perspectives. And, the process of students’ learning is supported from the day they start until graduation, with the goal of developing their own resources and skills in cultural awareness. We are also implementing some innovative advising and learning laboratory programs to further help students connect with personal resources for cultural competence.

  • The authors suggest the use of social validity surveys as one method for addressing cultural values. How can you incorporate this into your current practice?

Fong: I think, by just asking a client/family member/guardian if they agree with the goals and treatment suggestions would be a good start. Incorporating more relevant people into intervention planning would also be a good step.  I tend to get better participation in data collection when I do this, as well (i.e. buy-in).

Catagnus: Bobbie Gallagher and a few of us from TCSPP recently published a paper that addressed the cultural values of females with limited language (LL) and autism (ASD), and their families and nurses. The study was designed to gather social validity about what strategies would be doable, preferable, and acceptable to communicate with women with LL and ASD during a gynecological exam. These women are at risk because, statistically, they don’t access this important health service very often, if at all. The study gathered quantitative and qualitative data about concerns, fears, and preferences for how women could be more effectively and respectfully involved in the process of a diagnostic exam. As Bobbie wrote, “Identifying strategies with a higher rate of social validity, or acceptance of treatment prior to implementation, may assist future researchers in conducting studies on the effectiveness of those strategies.”

Gallagher, B.J., Flynn, S.D., Catagnus, R.M., Griffith, A. (2019). Social validity of strategies to assist females with ASD during gynecological examinations. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10882-018-9654-5

  • The authors state that one limitation of their article is that they did not provide systematic guidelines for working with culturally diverse clients. If you were going to introduce such guidelines, what might you include?

Fong: I think the guidelines I referenced here: Hughes Fong, E., & Tanaka, S. (2013). Multicultural Alliance of Behavior Analysis Standards for Cultural Competence in Behavior Analysis. The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. 8(2): 17-19. Are a good start.  APA did a fantastic job on their guidelines – so again looking at other fields to see what they have done (https://www.apa.org/about/policy/multicultural-guidelines) and learning from other fields would be helpful.

Catagnus: Ashely Knochel, Kwang-Sun Blair, Stacee Leatherman, and I are working on a manuscript now related to this topic. We hope to provide the ABA community with a systematic review of relevant cultural adaptation models, highlighting one that is most useful as a framework to guide the process. We recommend that ABA look to other fields that have created and researched frameworks or developed guidelines. Examples include Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations from the APA, and AMA Code of Medical Ethics’ Opinion on Cultural Sensitivity and Ethnic Disparities in Care.


About The Authors

Dr. Robyn Catagnus is an expert on learning and behavior change. A board-certified behavior analyst, she is an associate professor, associate chair, and former national chair of Behavior Analysis at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. She’s owned and operated a successful behavior consulting firm and held executive roles in behavioral health and educational technology organizations. As a management consultant and researcher, she also develops human capital initiatives to improve organizational behavior.

Dr. Catagnus’ helps educators promote inclusion, success, performance, and growth. She is a trustee of the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies; reviewer for the Diversity in Behavior Analysis section of the APA journal Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice; reviewer for Behavior Analysis in Practice, and former member of the editorial board for Perspectives on Behavior Science. Dr. Catagnus has degrees in instruction and technology, education, leadership and strategy, and a certificate in mindfulness.

Ms. Hughes Fong has over two decades of experience in the fields of behavioral health, education, and management. Her educational background is in clinical and counseling psychology and applied behavior analysis. She is currently a PhD candidate studying Clinical Psychology with a concentration in Forensic Psychology.

In 2011, Ms. Hughes Fong founded Multicultural Alliance of Behavior Analysts (MultiABA), now call the Diversity and Culture SIG. This is a special interest group of the Association of Behavior Analysis International (ABAI). Ms. Hughes Fong is the founder of “Diversity in Behavior Analysis” a section in Behavior Analysis Research and Practice, and serves as an Associate Editor for the journal. Ms. Hughes Fong, also serves on the Executive Committee for the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Division 35, as the Website Coordinator. She has been a reviewer for Behavior Analysis: Research and Practice, Behavior Analysis in Practice, and the National Multicultural Conference and Summit. She is also a “Distinguished Scholar” with the Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies, and a member Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI)  Diversity, Respect, and Inclusion Task Force

In addition, to Ms. Hughes Fong activities, she is a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst and licensed as a Behavior Specialist in Pennsylvania, a trainer in the Pennsylvania Bureau of Autism’s Functional Behavior Analysis training, and has received training certificates in the area of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy Childhood Traumatic Grief. In addition, she received her level one certification in Pivotal Response Training and Gottman Couples Therapy. Her primary areas of interest are in the application of ABA to multicultural populations, telehealth, social validity, health and behavior analysis, and examining child custody and parental competency when a child has developmental disabilities.

ABA Tools of the Trade: A book review from ASAT!

This month’s ASAT feature comes to us from Karrie Lindeman, EdD, BCBA-D, LBA and David Celiberti, PhD, BCBA-D. To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

Save 20% on ABA Tools of The Trade and our Tools of the Trade kit now through June 17th!

Data collection is the core of the success of our science. Without data, are we are not providing behavior analytic service to our clients; however, data collection can be a scary new journey for many. What do I collect? How do I collect it? What do I put it on? How do I manage the other children in the class? What do I do with the data once I have it? How do the data guide my decision-making? All of these questions pose roadblocks to the individuals attempting the collection.

To date, many training manuals and books have attempted to provide insight and guidance for struggling data-collection newbies. Some of these books have fallen short of delivering a clear and concise message to its readers. ABA Tools of the Trade provides a unique take at explaining the what, why, and most importantly, the “how-to” of data collection.

The authors start off describing the purpose of the book, addressing concerns that teachers and technicians face in the field every day: Why am I doing this? And how can I create easy to navigate data sheets with simple graphs for analyzing after I have collected the data? ABA Tools of the Trade breaks down their material into five sections which simplify the anatomy of a data sheet, review different types of data collection systems available, discuss how to utilize them with simple behavior change procedures, and offer activities to ensure supervisees are competent (huge bonus!). Throughout the sections, the material is organized in a way to help you identify exactly what you need to do, with helpful vignettes providing real-world examples.

The breakdown of the five sections allows the reader to easily find the information they are looking for, along with supporting documents. The first section delves into the Anatomy of Data Collection, describes not only why we collect data, but how to do so in the most simplistic way. This section is great for someone new to data collection or looking to expand their practice. A bonus includes describing different tools that may be helpful in your data collection journey with informative descriptions and visuals. Examples include tally counters, interval timers, and time timers, to name a few. A useful hints page highlights how the specific tools can be matched to the different measures of behavior that need to be tracked.

The second section is the Data Collection Systems sectionwhich describes more complex systems and strategies that work in different settings. It starts off with a comprehensive list of 10 rules of data collection. These rules are extremely important as they lay the groundwork for ethical data collection and reviews potential issues that may arise as you begin to collect data. These include examples of consent issues, confidentiality mishaps, and an important reminder to adhere to state and local laws. Finally, a handy task analysis of data collection steps provides a simple way for readers to grasp the needed components for specific targeted behaviors and wraps up the section.

The third and fourth sections include Behaviors and Simple Behavior Change Systems, which describes the Functional Behavior Assessment and Behavior Intervention Plan process in user-friendly terms. This is a great introduction for those starting out and looking to brush up on appropriate procedures. This section reviews what qualifies as efficient data collection in an FBA and how to analyze results. An added bonus is the discussion on antecedent strategies, which provides the reader with tactics and corresponding examples. Following the breakdown, vignettes of very specific behavioral episodes are provided, which allow the reader to apply the knowledge derived from the reading in everyday situations. Each vignette is followed by a general solution and helpful hints on dealing with the presented issue. For those interested in learning more about the topic, references and recommended readings are provided after all examples. Great source!

The fifth and final section, Supervision Practices, is a bonus for those supervising candidates for board certification in behavior analysis. It is comprehensive, well organized, and synched with the 5th Edition of Task List providing not only lessons but scenarios for practice with corresponding rubrics. Please note, as the Task List is updated, the alphanumeric codes may change. Three phases are addressed:

  • The Pre-Data Collection Phase addresses information gathering from parents and professionals surrounding prior attempts to address behavior (what was implemented and for how long) including defining behavior and determine how best to measure it.
  • The Data Collection Phase involves implementing the data collection system and making timely modifications, as well as proper training of the data collectors and determining an adequate schedule. Interobserver agreement is also addressed.
  • The Post-Data Collection Phase involves reviewing the collected data, preparing for graphic representation, and using data-based decision making.

Given that many newly credentialed BCBAs are assuming a supervisory role for the first time, this section is very helpful. Learning objectives and activities for each lesson are clearly articulated and rubrics are provided to support application and assess the skill level of the supervisee.

This short, well-organized, and easily-accessible resource belongs on the shelves of those first working towards BCBA certification, BCBAs who are starting out, and current BCBAs providing Registered Behavior Technician and BCBA supervision. The content spans all data collection needs, from the very basics on how to ensure those we supervise understand and demonstrate necessary skills from the Task List. It would also be a practical, yet easy supplemental read for students progressing through their coursework in college programs. To maintain quality service, it is imperative to ensure the next generation of BCBAs have the skills necessary to provide and supervise quality service provision. The inclusion of sections related to modifying one’s behavior as well as supervisory considerations only strengthen the utility of this already informative guide. This book is a great resource, and recommended without reservation!


About The Authors

Karrie Lindeman completed her undergraduate degree at C.W. Post University with a major in psychology. She went on to Queens College to complete her Masters in Psychology and advanced certificate in Behavior Analysis. From here, she worked in a school for children with autism for 10 years before moving on to consult in the public school and early intervention setting. Karrie completed her doctorate in learning and teaching at Hofstra University in 2015. She continues to provide direct service, parent training, and consultation in a variety of settings. Karrie is currently the Program Director of the Behavior Analysis program at Touro College in New York City.

David Celiberti, PhD, BCBA-D, is the Executive Director of ASAT and Past-President, a role he served from 2006 to 2012. He is the Co-Editor of ASAT’s monthly publication, Science in Autism Treatment. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Rutgers University in 1993 and his certification in behavior analysis in 2000. Dr. Celiberti has served on a number of advisory boards and special interest groups in the field of autism, applied behavior analysis (ABA), and early childhood education. He works in private practice and provides consultation to public and private schools and agencies in underserved areas. He has authored several articles in professional journals and presents frequently at regional, national, and international conferences. In prior positions, Dr. Celiberti taught courses related to ABA at both undergraduate and graduate levels, supervised individuals pursuing BCBA certifications, and conducted research in the areas of ABA, family intervention, and autism.

ABA Journal Club: A Response From Elizabeth A. Drago, M.A., BCBA, LBA

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. The following week another ABA professional will respond to Sam’s questions and provide further insight and a different perspective on the piece.

  • The researchers trained caregivers on a university campus using the BST model prior to home visits. In your current work, would this be a possibility for you? If not, how could you provide this type of training to caregivers? What obstacles can you predict, and how might you address them?

The majority of my clinical practice is primarily situated in home-based settings.  Delivering behavior analytic services in home-based settings presents with a multitude of circumstances contributing to variable rates of success in teaching new skills for both the client and caregivers.  Two variables contributing to such challenges in service delivery is caregiver accessibility and limited service hours allotted, particularly if the services are funded through insurance-based sources.  Formal Behavior Skills Training (BST) often requires time intensive performance and competency- based components, creating a challenge to implement in the home setting at times. With careful planning and caregiver commitment to participation, BST training in the home setting is quite “do-able”.

To address time constraints, a ‘train the trainer’ model or pyramidal training (Pence, St. Peter, & Tetreault, 2012), may be a beneficial strategy to assist in training multiple caregivers as well as contribute to increased proficiency in treatment fidelity.  A pyramidal training model involves a senior trainer (e.g., a behavior analyst) training a small group of staff or caregivers who in turn train other staff or caregivers.  This type of training model may be particularly beneficial to clinicians working in settings where time constraints may be a factor (such as residential services).  

  • Discuss the multiple baseline design used in the study. How does it demonstrate experimental control? What can you determine from a visual analysis of the data?

The researchers in this study utilized a concurrent multiple-baseline-across-modules design to analyze the effects of the BST module training delivered to parents to teach their children mands. Concurrent multiple-baseline-across modules design allows for simultaneous measurement to occur for all clients. Research suggests concurrent measurement controls better for threats to internal validity and result in somewhat stronger inferences than do nonconcurrent designs (Watson and Workman, 1981). Multiple baseline designs are appropriate when target behaviors are not reversible. Use of a concurrent multiple-baseline design to evaluate treatment effectiveness minimizes the ethical concerns related to a withdrawal design. Training skills sequentially using a multiple-baseline-across-modules design is beneficial since it allows trainers to teach skills gradually and gave trainees repeated rehearsal opportunities on previously trained skills. The trainer could also monitor ongoing caregiver performance and make decisions to advance caregivers through the training based on the consistency and accuracy of their performance on trained skills.  Researchers of the study required caregivers to reach specific mastery criterion rates to advance to additional modules in the BST to assess the maintenance of the caregiver’s accuracy of procedural integrity and the child’s mands.

Upon visual analysis of the data, results of the study support effects of a BST model for training caregivers to implement mand training procedures.  In addition, after training, caregivers did not exhibit difficulties generalizing the skills to implement mand training procedures to the child.  Additional training was provided to caregivers during sessions with the child when mastery criterion was not achieved.  The researchers found by staggering the training across modules, caregivers learned to capture and contrive motivating operations contributing to the emergence of spontaneous mands.

  • Part of this study included a measure of whether a competently trained parent could teach their spouse how to implement mand training. Why is this important? Have you implemented similar strategies in your own work?

Training caregivers to effectively generalize behavior analytic treatment strategies and interventions to the child outside of training sessions is one of the goals of family support behavior analytic services.   Strategies to fade out the necessity of behavior analytic services is developed in the client’s treatment plan at the initiation of services.   Delivering BST to a caregiver who demonstrates proficiency of the designated steps is invaluable in the treatment process.  Through BST,  trained caregivers who have demonstrated mastery of a skill, have the ability to train additional caregivers (e.g., grandparents and siblings) in the client’s environment, facilitating generalization of treatment effects. 

In addition, research has supported the finding that providing caregivers with training and education to increase their family member’s functional skills (such as communication) may reduce caregiver stress by increasing the caregiver’s confidence levels (Bebko et al. 1987).  Researchers have also found that parents who reported high levels of confidence in managing their child’s major difficulties and perceived others in the family as similarly successful also reported lower stress rates (Sharpley and Bitsika 1997).

In my practice, I utilize BST to teach caregivers skills related to communication and socialization training and areas of daily living such as toileting, dressing, toothbrushing and community safety.  I recently utilized BST to teach a modified PECS (Picture Exchange Communication System) to a client’s caregivers. After reaching fluency criteria for each step of the target skill, the trained caregiver was capable of effectively training the modified PECS procedure to the second caregiver.  Success rates for each steps of the BST procedure were measured by observation, data collection and data analysis of procedural integrity demonstrated by the second parent during sessions with the client.  Success rates were also measured by data analysis  of the client’s rate of progress in reaching various communication targets via use of the modified PECS taught by caregivers. 

  • This study did include maintenance data. Why is this data valuable? Do you collect maintenance data on the caregiver training you provide?

According to Alberto & Troutman, 2013, ‘maintenance’ is defined as “performing a response over time, even after systematic applied behavior procedures have been withdrawn”.  Maintenance is demonstrated over time when the skill continues to occur after all direct teaching of the particular skill has been discontinued. 

 Maintenance data could also be utilized to assist in shaping additional skills.  For example, prior to teaching a client receptive discrimination skills related to picture identification in a field of 3 stimuli, it is important to evaluate the presence or absence of certain prerequisite skills such as attending, gesturing (i.e., pointing or eye gaze), following direction and ability to identify objects depicted in the array.  Without information gathered from maintenance skill probes (i.e., attending, pointing, tact repertoire, etc.), teaching the skill of receptive discrimination may not be possible if the client has not exhibited mastery of specific prerequisite skills first.

During skill acquisition training, I typically teach a targeted behavior until the recipient exhibits fluency in exhibiting that behavior.  The computer- generated data system I utilize in my practice includes pre-set monitoring schedules of maintenance data based upon a timed schedule.  Maintenance probes are automatically scheduled in a staggered fashion.  For example, if the client exhibits proficiency in engaging in a specific skill during baseline, that skill is automatically scheduled for a maintenance probe on a monthly basis.  If a client reaches fluency of a specific skill after commencement of treatment, the target is scheduled for maintenance in a staggered time frame (i.e., weekly, bi-weekly, monthly, bi-monthly and annually). After the client reaches mastery criterion for annual maintenance, the target is considered ‘closed’.  If at any time the target fails maintenance, the target is added back into treatment.  

If a clinician is teaching skills to fluency, the necessity of relying on maintenance data to determine if the skill remains in that client’s behavior repertoire becomes less relevant. 

  • Consider a particular skill you are teaching one or more clients. What would BST look like to teach caregivers how to implement the necessary procedures for teaching that skill?

A particular skill BST could be utilized to teach is use of utensils during mealtime.

Instruction – For this step, if a client exhibits adequate receptive skills related to vocal/verbal instruction, one may say to the client, “When you eat certain foods, such as spaghetti or vegetables, you use a fork to pick the food up. You wouldn’t use a fork to eat foods such as cereal or pudding.”

If the client does not exhibit adequate receptive language skills, one may describe the skill to the caregiver.  For example: “We teach the skill of eating with utensils to assist with independent functioning.  We will practice this skill first, with a fork and upon reach specific mastery criteria, we will proceed in teaching use of additional utensils, such as a spoon.  It’s best to practice this skill when motivation to eat is high in order to increase rate of reinforcement and eventually, acquisition of mastery criteria (i.e., if the client is hungry, his motivation to follow the rule to use a fork to eat may be higher compared to times when he is not hungry). Reinforcement for use of the fork is naturally built in, as the food he eats with the fork will serve as reinforcement for the targeted behavior.”

Along with vocal/verbal instruction of the BST steps, I may also provide the caregiver with written steps to the procedure to assist with fluency.

Modeling – For this step, during mealtime, I model the steps described above to the caregiver.  I provide a description of each step as the step is being performed to the caregiver.

Rehearsal –For this step, encourage the caregiver to implement the steps to practice the skill.  During these practice sessions, data recording is critical to determine fluency of the practice of the targeted skill.

Feedback – Prior to this step, I discuss with the caregiver the form of feedback they prefer to receive (in-situ feedback or feedback after each trial session has ended).   Throughout my career I have learned the importance of tailoring my delivery of feedback to individual preference (some caregivers prefer feedback while they are performing the step, while others prefer to receive feedback after they have completed the step).  Once I have determined the timing of my feedback, I deliver the feedback in the context agreed upon.

  • The article states, “General instructions were provided prior to baseline, but parents were only able to implement the procedures effectively when full instructions, modeling, rehearsal and feedback were used to train to mastery.” How can you change your current practice to ensure that you are providing the necessary steps to help caregivers master skills they have selected for parent training?

To streamline the often time-intensive process BST requires, I typically stagger the trainings across multiple sessions.  Delivery of insurance-based family training services is generally provided in a time intensive and structured fashion. To meet these stringent guidelines and to ensure I deliver the most effective and efficient services, I provide the caregiver with written and verbal steps to BST across several consecutive sessions.  I review each step with the caregiver and assign weekly assignments to practice specific steps.  During each family training visit, I review and model the steps and request the caregiver to perform the step they worked on the week prior.  After the caregivers reach specific fluency rates in responding accurately,  additional steps are introduced.  

One method of training I may consider including in my caregiver trainings when delivering BST, is use of video modeling.  Video modeling is a teaching procedure that involves an individual viewing a videotaped sample of a model performing a specific, scripted activity or task. Immediately following having viewed the video-based model, the individual is directed to perform the activity or script he or she observed in the video (e.g., MacDonald, Clark, Garrigan, & Vangala, 2005). Use of video modeling may further address time constraints to training that is often a barrier in delivery of home-based services.  Video modeling may also assist in in higher rates of procedural integrity when working with caregivers who learn more effectively through use of visual guides as opposed to textual guides only.

BST is an incredibly invaluable method of teaching new skills.  With careful planning and commitment to learning, caregivers have a unique opportunity to actively participate in their family member’s treatment to help them engage in socially meaningful ways.

References

Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. C. (2013). Applied behavior analysis for teachers. Boston: Pearson.

Bebko JM, Konstantareas MM, Springer J. Parent and professional evaluations of family stress associated with characteristics of autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 1987; 17:565–576.

MacDonald, R., Clark, M., Garrigan, E., &Vangala, M. (2005) Using video modeling to teach pretend play to children with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 225-238. 

Parsons M. B., Rollyson J. H., Reid D. H. Evidence-based staff training: A guide for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice. 2012; 5:2–11. 

Parsons, M. B., Rollyson, J. H., & Reid, D. H. (2013). Teaching Practitioners to Conduct Behavioral Skills Training: A Pyramidal Approach for Training Multiple Human Service Staff. Behavior analysis in practice6(2), 4–16. doi:10.1007/BF03391798.

Pence S. T., St. Peter C. C., Tetreault A. S. Increasing accurate preference assessment implementation through pyramidal training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 2012;45:345–359.

Sharpley, C. F., & Bitsika, V. (1997). Influence of gender, parental health, and perceived expertise of assistance upon stress, anxiety, and depression among parents of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 22, 19–29.

Watson, Paul & A. Workman, Edward. (1981). The non-concurrent multiple baseline across-individuals design: An extension of the traditional multiple baseline design. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry. 12. 257-9.


Elizabeth A. Drago, M.A., BCBA, LBA, is a Board Certified and Licensed Behavior Analyst and a consultant at Proud Moments Therapy located on Long Island, New York and Comprehensive Behavior Supports, located in Brooklyn, NY.  She has over 15 years’ experience working with individuals with developmental and related disabilities and has advanced training in areas of autism, behavior disorders, sleep disorders, intellectual disabilities and positive behavior supports.  As a consultant in home and educational settings, she clinically oversees client cases, provides parent training, implements comprehensive skill assessments and programming goals for children diagnosed with ASD, conducts staff trainings for effective performance improvement practices and behavior analytic practices and procedures. She holds professional memberships in organizations such as New York State Association for Applied Behavior Analysis, Association for Behavior Analysis International, Association of Professional Behavior Analysis.

Elizabeth is a Board member of the New York State Association for Behavior Analysis (NYSABA), serving the role of Representative at Large. She is also an active member of NYSABA’s Legislative Committee, focusing on efforts to remove the licensure scope of practice restriction in Behavior Analysis in New York State. Elizabeth has contributed significantly to disseminating information related to the scope restriction in Behavior Analysis in NYS. Some of Elizabeth’s achievements in these efforts include developing initiatives such as the video series entitled, ‘This is ABA’.  The purpose of the video series is to highlight the effectiveness and applicability of the practice of Behavior Analysis to individuals of varying diagnoses, not only for those diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. This video series is currently featured on the NYSABA website.   Elizabeth also works collaboratively with NYSABA’s Executive Director, Mari Wantanbe-Rose in the development and oversight of NYSABA’s Inaugural ABA Ambassador Award. The NYSABA ABA Ambassador Award recognizes future behavior analysts, or students, who help to disseminate the usefulness and versatility of behavior analysis in various settings.

Elizabeth has presented at NYSABA’s annual professional conference on the topics of Systematic Desensitization (2017) and Self-Care for the Behavior Analyst (2018). She has been invited as a speaker at a roundtable meeting at Proud Moments ABA, presenting on the topic of the use of technical jargon when interacting with caregivers. Elizabeth has also been featured in a newsletter (August 2018 edition) generated by Comprehensive Behavior Supports in recognition of the many significant contributions to the agency and families she serves across Long Island as a Licensed and Board Certified Behavior Analyst.  Elizabeth has been a guest speaker on a Behavior Analytic podcase, ‘Behaviorbabe’, hosted by Dr. Amanda Kelly, discussing the NYS licensure law scope restriction on the practice of Behavior Analysis in NYS. Elizabeth received a Bachelor’s Degree in Clinical Psychology from St. John’s University, graduating Summa Cum Laude. She continued her education, earning her Master’s Degree in Clinical Psychology at Teacher’s College, Columbia University, where she received an honors certificate in education and teaching and was a member of Kappa Delta Phi- Honor Society in Education.   Elizabeth attended post-graduate studies at Penn State University, where she completed coursework in Applied Behavior Analysis.  She earned her BCBA certification and licensure in Behavior Analysis in 2014.

Your Child’s Autism Diagnosis Long Term

In the years immediately after a parent learns of a diagnosis of autism, it can be especially challenging to think of your child’s autism diagnosis long term. But as parents advocate for their child, and as practitioners work with the family to create goals for that child, the long term must be considered. Here are a few suggestions to help with considering the long term, while focusing on short-term goals:

  • Create a vision statement. One of my favorite books is From Emotions to Advocacy: The Special Education Survival Guide by Pam Wright and Pete Wright. This book covers everything parents need to know about advocating for a child with special needs. One of the first things they suggest is creating a vision statement. They describe this as “a visual picture that describes your child in the future.” While this exercise may be challenging, it can help hone in on what is important to you, your family, and your child with special needs in the long term.
  • Look at your child’s behaviors, then try to imagine what it might look like if your child is still engaging in that behavior in five or ten years. Often, behaviors that are not problematic at three are highly problematic at 8 or 13 years old. Such behaviors might include hugging people unexpectedly or (for boys) dropping their pants all the way to the ground when urinating (which could result in bullying at older ages). While it is easy to prioritize other behaviors ahead of these, it’s important to remember that the longer a child has engaged in a behavior, the more difficult it may be to change.
  • Talk to practitioners who work with older students. Many practitioners only work with a certain age group of children. While they may be an expert for the age group they work with, it may be helpful to speak with a practitioner who works with older kids and ask what skill deficits they often see, what recommendations they may make, and what skills are essential for independence at older ages.
  • Talk with other parents. Speaking with other parents of children with special needs can be hugely beneficial. Over the years, I’ve worked with hundreds of parents who are spending countless hours focusing on providing the best possible outcomes for their children. And while it’s impossible to prepare for everything that will come in your child’s life, it may be helpful to find out what has blindsided other parents as their children with special needs have grown up.

WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges

ABA Journal Club: Interventions and RBTs (response)

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. The following week another ABA professional will respond to Sam’s questions and provide further insight and a different perspective on the piece.

This week, Solandy Forte, PhD, LCSW, LBA, BCBA-D provided a response to some of Sam’s questions about the article below:

I am thrilled to contribute to the conversation about RBT as it deserves the attention particularly as we continue to grow as a field.  We are a young field that is experiencing growing pains but they are good ones.  I appreciate the contributions that many practitioners in our field have shared relating to credentialing of RBTs.  At the end of all this, I am confident we will have established training and experience standards to will lead to positive outcomes for our consumers.  We have a long road ahead. 

Leaf, J. B., Leaf, R., McEachin, J., Taubman, M., Smith, T., Harris, S. L., … & Volkmar, F. R. (2017). Concerns about the Registered Behavior Technician™ in relation to effective autism intervention. Behavior Analysis in Practice10(2), 154-163.

  • The authors discuss the evolution of the BACB and concerns with certifying behavior analysts prior to the advent of RBTs. What did you think of the concerns identified here? Are these still concerns we have about BCBAs? How are they similar or different than concerns about RBTs?

The field of behavior analysis is practically in its adolescence.  There are many other helping professions such as psychology, psychiatry, and social work that have experienced growth for over a century and have had to navigate through barriers impacting the practitioner’s ability to provide quality behavioral healthcare with the increasing demand of service.  It is not unusual for a growing field to consider identifying ways to meet the healthcare needs of the population particularly when the number of qualified practitioners is not sufficient to meet the demands.  For instance, in the nursing field, registered nurses are often supported by nursing assistants and nurse aides.  The nursing field developed training and experience standards for each of these credentials and these standards have likely been modified as the profession has studied the impact on the overall delivery of services and its impact on the patient. 

Sure, the concerns raised are valid and should be evaluated carefully by researchers so that they can inform special matter expert groups established by the BACB®.  However, the field of behavior analysis cannot ignore the obvious increase in demand for applied behavioral analysis services.  It will take decades for the field to assess what are the most appropriate training and experience requirements to promote optimal consumer outcomes.  This is not only the case for RBTs® but also for BCBAs®.  Again, this is a growing field and we should expect to see modifications in the credentialing requirements. 

  • How does the current training of RBTs compare to the training of behavior technicians in early behavior analytic studies?

Any training of behavior technicians in early studies were developed by science practitioners who based their training procedures (e.g., topics, hours, teaching methodology, etc.) on either previous studies that evaluated training methods or training procedures that best fit their setting, staff, and client needs.  These research studies were not evaluating the training requirement of the RBT®.  Regardless, these studies contributed to the field of behavior analysis particularly when practitioners were developing in-house training requirements and adjusting along the way as they observed the behavior technician’s ability to implement behavioral technology with fidelity and retain what they had learned in the initial training overtime.  Currently, research studies are evaluating training packages that are aligned with the RBT® requirements and these will contribute to any revisions to credential requirements. 

  • Look at the RBT task list. The authors argue that the current amount of training does not meet standards set forth by research on staff training. How can BCBAs and organizations hiring RBTs support their mastery of the skills on this list?

Every organization is responsible for setting their own standards with regard to training of staff.  Training requirements will vary depending on the setting and in some cases requirements will expand beyond RBT® training.   For instance, there are organizations that require staff to receive physical management training, CPR, and first aid, to name a few.  It is common for training to occur on a regular or annual basis for an organization to remain in compliance with state regulations or enhance the delivery of services.  With regard to the RBT® credential, organizations are responsible and should carefully evaluate mastery of skills.  Further, organizations should include in their training protocols procedures for evaluating generalization and maintenance of acquired skills.  It is not only to important to meet mastery for each item on the RBT® task list but it is critical for staff to implement the skills they have acquired in a variety of setting over time.  RBTs work a variety of settings including home, school, and community; therefore, mastery of skills cannot just be mastered in the classroom setting but also must be generalized to the settings in which will be applied. 

  • Many of the recommendations by the authors include changes the BACB should enact as well as research that should be conducted. How are you able to take a role in these types of recommendations?

There is no doubt that research should be conducted to further evaluate the training and experience requirements for RBTs® but again this is going to take time.  Research studies take years to plan, execute, and disseminate.   This is not an easy feat but one that should be charged by the practitioners in the field and the demand for the delivery of high-quality behavioral services.  Our goal is to contribute to the solution by collecting and sharing data that experts can use to revise RBT® requirements.  We cannot ignore the obvious need for research in this area that will ultimately contribute to the positive growth of our field. 


Solandy Forte, PhD, LCSW, LBA, BCBA-D, is the Director of Consultation Services and Community Outreach at Milestones Behavioral Services.  She is a doctoral level Board Certified Behavior Analyst licensed in Connecticut and Massachusetts and a Licensed Clinical Social Worker.  Dr. Forte provides consultation services to the school programs at Milestones serving individuals with a diverse set of complex learning needs.  In addition to providing direct consultation to children within the private school setting, she also has provided consultation to multi-disciplinary teams within the public school setting where she assisted with program development initiatives to promote building capacity for educating children with autism and related neurodevelopmental disorders within the least restrictive educational setting.  Dr. Forte has experience working with children and young adults with special needs in their homes, schools, and community settings. She is an adjunct professor for the Institute of Autism and Behavioral Studies at the University of Saint Joseph in West Hartford, Connecticut and the Institute of Behavioral Studies at Endicott College in Beverly, Massachusetts. 

What Is Procedural Fidelity In ABA?

It is not uncommon for parents or practitioners to implement a new intervention that appears to be working well, then after a few weeks or months report that the intervention has stopped working. Often, the change in behavior in feels like a mystery and leaves people scrambling for a new intervention. But before searching for a new intervention, you should consider the possibility of problems with procedural fidelity, which “refers to the accuracy with which the intervention or treatment is implemented” (Mayer, Sulzer-Azaroff, & Wallace, 2014).

Problems with procedural fidelity in ABA are common, and you will experience more success with your interventions if you take steps to address fidelity at the outset. Here are a few suggestions:

  • Post the steps in a visible spot. Clearly list the steps of the procedure and put them in a spot where you will see them often. This might be on the actual data collection sheet or on the wall. One parent I worked with had a Post-it® note with the steps for our intervention attached to her computer screen. Another parent kept the steps inside the ID part of his wallet, where they were protected and visible each time he opened his wallet.
  • Plan meetings to go over the steps. As part of your intervention, set brief monthly or quarterly meetings to go over the steps of the intervention and be sure everyone is maintaining procedural fidelity.
  • Assess for procedural fidelity. Schedule observations to ensure that each step of the intervention is implemented as described. If you do not have someone who can supervise you, take video of yourself implementing the intervention, watch it and compare your actions to the steps outlined in the intervention plan.
  • Outline steps for systematic fading of the intervention. When implementing an intervention, the goal is to have the learner eventually exhibiting the desirable behavior without prompts or planned reinforcement. Sometimes when a parent or practitioner sees the learner’s behavior improving, they begin to remove the prompts or planned reinforcement before the learner is quite ready for it. By writing a plan for fading the intervention into the plan, you make it clear to everyone involved what the requirements are for each step towards mastery.

REFERENCES

Mayer, G.R., Sulzer-Azaroff, B., & Wallace, M. (2014). Behavior analysis for lasting change (3rd ed.). Cornwall-on-Hudson, NY: Sloan Publishing.


About The Author

Sam is an ABA provider for school-aged students in Brooklyn, New York. Working in education for over 15 years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges and the Senior Clinical Strategist at Encore Support Services.

ABA Journal Club #2: Ethics and Social Media

One of the tenets of ABA is to provide evidence-based practice. The best way to help us do this is to keep up with the literature! Each month, Sam Blanco, PhD, LBA, BCBA will select one journal article and provide discussion questions for professionals working within the ABA community. The following week another ABA professional will respond to Sam’s questions and provide further insight and a different perspective on the piece.

Head to our Facebook page to join the discussion and let us know your thoughts!

It is important in our field to maintain an open conversation about ethics. The Professional and Ethical Compliance Code outlines how behavior analysts are expected to conduct themselves, but sometimes situations are not so black and white. And as the world changes, so do the expectations for ethical conduct. In recent years, issues related to social media have been especially relevant. This month, I’ve selected the following article which addresses the special concerns that come up with the use of social media.

O’Leary, P. N., Miller, M. M., Olive, M. L., & Kelly, A. N. (2017). Blurred lines: Ethical implications of social media for behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice10(1), 45-51 .


  1. The article reviews the codes of ethics for other professions. Why is this valuable for us to do as a profession? Did you learn anything surprising or interesting form this portion of the article?
  1. Since this article was written, our field has a new Professional and Ethical Compliance Code. How does this code differ from the previously used Guidelines for Responsible Conduct? What aspects of the code directly apply to ethical situations related to social media?
  1. “A search on an internet search engine for information related to a procedure or scientific concept may yield results as to what that procedure or concept is. The same search on a social media outlet may yield results as to whether or not that procedure or concept should be used (p. 47.) Discuss this difference.
  1. Behavior analysts and others interested in the topic may turn to social media to get answers to their questions due to the low response effort involved and the speed of reinforcement. How can we decrease response effort and increase reinforcement for referring to the scientific literature to answer our questions?
  1. The authors provide suggestions for how behavior analysts should behave on social media. Are there any suggestions you might add? Are there ways you can increase the likelihood of other behavior analysts following these suggestions?
  1. Consider your own behavior on social media. Based on recommendations from the article, what is one change you can make to increase your own ethical behavior in this context?

WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

The Salad Shoppe: Changing the Landscape of Vocational Training

Unemployment rates in the autism community are alarming, but the number of individuals entering the workforce only continues to grow. This presents an overwhelming challenge for special educators tasked with preparing learners for what is often an uncertain future. Vocational training is essential as learners with autism approach the transition to adulthood.  With this in mind, Nassau Suffolk Services for Autism (NSSA) introduced The Salad Shoppe in the fall of 2017.

The curriculum was developed by Kathryn Reres and Rebecca Chi, devoted special educators determined to ensure dignified and purposeful futures for the eight young adult students in their classroom. The focus was to create a program that would provide functional tasks for each learner based on their individual skills, interests and IEP goals. The result was an innovative vocational training curriculum that highlights the strengths of each participant, introduces new skills into their everyday lives and serves as a profitable social enterprise. 

The Salad Shoppe model requires multiple steps to be taken over the course of two days, including: Tracking and counting money, taking inventory, creating shopping lists, purchasing, food preparation, converting a customer’s order form to food assembly, delivery and clean up. This comprehensive list ensures that every learner has the opportunity to perform a task that is meaningful and functional to them. (The staff at NSSA are reaping the benefits too! Fresh, healthy, personally-delivered lunches each week have been a huge hit.)

In partnership with Different Roads to Learning, the creative teachers who designed The Salad Shoppe for NSSA are sharing their expertise with special educators everywhere. The published curriculum will allow teachers to implement The Salad Shoppe in a way that will best function for the learners they serve. Now more than ever, there is a crucial need to provide young adults with autism with the tools they will need to take on the competitive workforce. The Salad Shoppe is a cutting-edge curriculum that has opened new doors for educators, learners and parents and will continue to change the landscape of vocational training.

Ready to bring The Salad Shoppe to your school? You can save 15% on this incredible program now through February 18th!

Resources For Parents

This month’s ASAT feature comes to us from Peggy Halliday, MEd, BCBA. To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

The following websites include milestones’ checklists, booklets, and a wealth of information to help parents become savvy consumers of autism treatment. The contributors are parent groups well as professional, medical, scientific, and legal and/or advocacy organizations which are available to meet the needs of families.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 

The AAP is an organization of 67,000 pediatricians committed to the well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. The AAP website contains recent information about autism prevalence, links to many external resources and training websites, information about pediatrician surveillance and screening, and early intervention guidelines. This site offers great tools and resources for both pediatricians and families. 

Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI) 

The ABAI is a nonprofit professional membership organization whose objective for education is to develop, improve, and disseminate best practices in the recruitment, training, and professional development of behavior analysts. ABAI offers membership to professionals and consumers, which entitles them to a newsletter and other benefits, including event registration discounts, and continuing education opportunities. 

Association of Professional Behavior Analysts (APBA) 

The APBA is a nonprofit professional membership organization that is focused on serving professional practitioners of behavior analysis by promoting and advancing the science-based practice of applied behavior analysis. Membership is open to professional behavior analysts and others who are interested in the practice of ABA, including professionals from various disciplines, consumers, and students. 

Association for Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT)  

The ASAT is a non-profit organization founded in 1998 “to promote safe, effective, science-based treatments for people with autism by disseminating accurate, timely, and scientifically sound information, advocating for the use of scientific methods to guide treatment, and combating unsubstantiated, inaccurate and false information about autism and its treatment.” To serve its mission ASAT provides a comprehensive website which includes Research Synopses of a vast array of autism treatments to help families and organizations make informed choices, as well as specific resources for journalists, medical providers, and parents of newly diagnosed children. ASAT also publishes a monthly online publication, Science in Autism Treatment, with over 12,000 subscribers from all 50 states and over 100 countries. ASAT has Media Watch Initiative that responds quickly to both accurate and inaccurate portrayals of autism treatment in the media, and an Externship Program which includes students, professionals, and family members.

Autism New Jersey (Autism NJ) 

Autism NJ is now the largest statewide network of parents and professionals dedicated to improving the lives of individuals with autism and their families. Since its establishment in 1965, Autism New Jersey’s mission has been to ensure that all individuals with autism receive appropriate services. Autism New Jersey is a nonprofit agency committed to ensuring safe and fulfilling lives for individuals with autism, their families and the professionals who support them through awareness, credible information grounded in science, education, and public policy initiatives. 

The Autism Science Foundation (ASF) 

As well as providing information about autism to the general public and promoting awareness of the needs of individuals and families affected by autism, the Autism Science Foundation’s mission is to support and fund scientists and organizations conducting research into Autism Spectrum Disorder. 

Autism Speaks 

Autism Speaks supports global research into the causes, prevention, treatments, and cure for autism and raises public awareness. The website contains information on resources by state, resources for families, advocacy news, and suggested apps for learners with autism. The Autism Speaks 100 Day Kit for Newly Diagnosed Families of Young Children was created specifically for families of children ages 4 and younger to make the best possible use of the 100 days following their child’s diagnosis of autism.  

Autism Wandering Awareness Alerts Response Education (AWAARE).

This organization has developed three “Big Red Safety Toolkits” to respond to wandering incidents: one for caregivers, one for First Responders, and one for teachers. They are free and downloadable from their website.

Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB) 

The BACB is a nonprofit corporation established as a result of credentialing needs identified by behavior analysts, state governments, and consumers of behavior analysis services. Their mission is to develop, promote and implement an international certification program for behavior analysis practitioners. The BACB website contains information for consumers (including a description of behavior analysis), conduct guidelines, requirements for becoming certified and maintaining certification, and a registry of certificants that can be searched by name or state. 

Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies 

The Cambridge Center for Behavioral Studies website seeks to bring together knowledge and behavior analysis resources, a glossary of behavioral terms, online tutorials and suggestions for effective parenting. A continuing education course series is offered through collaboration with the University of West Florida and is designed to provide instruction in a variety of areas of behavior analysis. To utilize all of the features of the website, you must register.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 

The Act Early website from the CDC contains an interactive and easy-to-use milestones’ checklist you can use to track how your child plays, learns, speaks, acts, and moves ages 3 months through 5 years. The milestones checklist is now available as a free downloadable tracker that follows your child’s progress. There are tips on how to share your concerns with your child’s doctor and free materials that you can order, including fact sheets, resource kits, and growth charts. 

Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates, Inc. (COPAA) 

The Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates is a national American advocacy association of parents of children with disabilities, their attorneys, advocates, and others who support the educational and civil rights of children with disabilities. The website provides important information about entitlements under federal law and is divided into resources for students and families, attorneys, advocates, and related professionals, and a peer to peer connection site. 

Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) 

The CEC is an international professional organization dedicated to improving the educational outcomes and quality of life for individuals with exceptionalities. The focus is on helping educators obtain the resources necessary for effective professional practice. Autism is one of many disabilities discussed. 

Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) 

Sponsored by the Institute of Education Services (IES) of the U.S. Dept. of Education, ERIC provides ready access to education literature to support the use of educational research and information to improve practice in learning, teaching, educational decision-making, and research. 

First Signs 

The First Signs website contains a variety of helpful resources related to identifying and recognizing the first signs of autism spectrum disorder, and the screening and referral process. A video glossary is useful in demonstrating how you can spot the early red flags for autism by viewing side-by-side video clips of children with typical behaviors in comparison with children with autism. First Signs aims to lower the age at which children are identified with developmental delays and disorders through improved screening and referral practices. 

Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) 

IDEA is a law that ensures services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities. The IDEA website contains information on early intervention services, local and state funding, and Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) issues including evaluation, reevaluation, and procedural safeguards. 

The Interagency Autism Coordinating Committee (IACC)

IACC coordinates ASD related activities across the United States Health and Human Services Department and the Office of Autism Research. The IACC publishes yearly summary advance updates from the field of autism spectrum disorder.

National Autism Center (NAC) 

The NAC is a nonprofit organization dedicated to disseminating evidence-based information about the treatment of autism spectrum disorder and promoting best practices. Through the multi-year National Standards Project, the NAC established a set of standards for effective, research-validated educational and behavioral interventions. The resulting National Standards Report offers comprehensive and reliable resources for families and practitioners. 

National Professional Development Center on Autism Spectrum Disorders (NPDC) 

In 2014 the NPDC, using rigorous criteria, classified 27 focused interventions as evidence- practices for teaching individuals with autism. This website allows you to access online modules for many of these practices as well as an overview and general description, step-by-step instructions, and an implementation checklist for each of the practices. NPDC is currently in the process of updating the systematic review through 2017 as part of the Clearinghouse on Autism Evidence and Practice. It also has a multi-university center dedicated to the promotion of evidence-based practices for ASD. The Center operates three sites at UC Davis MIND Institute, Waisman Center, and the Franklin Porter Graham Child Development Institute at the University of North Caroline Chapel Hill. Each of these websites delivers a wealth of information including online training modules, resources, factsheets, and more.

NIH National Institutes of Health (NIH) 

The NIH, a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting medical research. Helping to lead the way toward important medical discoveries that improve people’s health and save lives, NIH scientists investigate ways to prevent disease as well as researching the causes, treatments, and even cures for common and rare diseases. 

The Ohio Center for Autism and Low Incidence (OCALI)

OCALI working in collaboration with the Ohio Department of Education, is a clearinghouse of information on autism research, resources, and trends. The OCALI website contains training and technical assistance including assessment resources and ASD service guidelines.

Organization for Autism Research (OAR) 

OAR is a nonprofit organization dedicated to applying research to the daily challenges of those living with autism. OAR funds new research and disseminates evidence-based information in a form clearly understandable to the non-scientific consumer. The OAR website contains downloadable comprehensive guidebooks, manuals, and booklets for families, professionals, and first responders.  OAR offers recommendations and worksheets for educators and service providers to assist in classroom planning, and a newsletter, “The OARacle.” In conjunction with the American Legion Child Welfare Foundation, OAR also offers Operation Autism for Military Families, a web-based resource specifically designed and created to support military families that have children with autism. 

Rethinkfirst 

Rethink is a global health technology company which provides cloud-based treatment too for individuals with developmental disabilities and their caregivers. Their web-based platform includes a comprehensive curriculum, hundreds of dynamic instructional videos of teaching interactions, step-by-step training modules, and progress tracking features.

Virginia Commonwealth University Autism Center for Excellence 

VCU-ACE is a university-based technical assistance, professional development, and educational research center for autism spectrum disorder in the state of Virginia. VCU-ACE offers a wide variety of online training opportunities for professionals, families, individuals with ASD, and the community at large. The website contains many useful resources, including a series of short how- to videos demonstrating particular evidence-based strategies, webcasts, and online courses. 

Wrights Law 

Wrights Law is an organization which provides helpful information about special education law, education law, and advocacy for children with disabilities in the USA. The Wrights Law website contains an advocacy and law library including articles, cases, FAQs and success stories, and information on IDEA. 

Zero to Three: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families

This is a national, nonprofit organization which seeks to inform, educate, and support professionals who influence the lives of infants and toddlers. The organization supports the healthy development and well-being of infants, toddlers, and their families by supplying parents with practical resources that help them connect positively with their babies. They also share information about the Military Families Project, which supplies trainings, information, and resources for military families with young children. 

Please use the following format to cite this article:

Halliday, P. (2016 revised 2019). Consumer Corner: Some resources for parents. Science in Autism Treatment, 13(2), 27-31.


Peggy Halliday, MEd, BCBA, has served as a member of the Board of Directors of ASAT since 2010. She has been a practitioner at the Virginia Institute of Autism (VIA) in Charlottesville, Virginia since 1998. She oversees trainings for parents and professionals and provides consultation to public school divisions throughout Virginia.

ABA Journal Club #1

            For January, I have selected not one, but two texts. The first is a foundational article that every behavior analyst has probably read more than once. However it’s an important one to revisit, and one that I gain more insight from with each read. The second is a follow-up to the original article.

Article One: Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis1(1), 91-97.

Article Two: Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1987). Some still‐current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis20(4), 313-327.

Discussion Questions for Baer, Wolf, Risley (1968):

The tone of the 1968 article is hopeful. The authors express a belief that behavior analytic procedures will become more prevalent as people understand the technology. Do you think they were accurate in this belief? What has been your experience with people accepting the principles of ABA?

Among the seven dimensions discussed in this article, what did you find most interesting?

The authors state that the term applied is defined by the interest society shows in the problem being studied. Is this how you have thought of the term applied in the past? How does your current work fit into this description? And how do we know society is interested?

In their discussion of analytic, the authors explain two designs commonly used to demonstrate reliable control of behavior change. Do you use these designs in your every day practice? Why or why not?

Do you think all seven of these dimensions hold equal importance? Why or why not?

How do the seven dimensions make ABA different from other fields?

Discussion Questions for Baer, Wolf, Risley (1987):

Compare and contrast the descriptions of each of the seven dimensions across the two articles.

The authors identify social validity as a good measure of effectiveness. However, they also identify issues with the assessment of social validity. How do you think that has changed since they wrote this article? How do you assess social validity in your own work?

What do you think of the discussion of high-quality failures?

In what ways do you follow the seven dimensions in your current work?

Can you identify a way to improve your own work based on the seven dimensions?

If you were to identify an eighth dimension that is not currently represented in these articles, what might you add?


SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.