Preparing For The Holidays

While the holidays can be a very fun and exciting time, they often tend to disrupt regular routines. A disruption in routines can frequently lead to added stress, anxiety, and behavioral difficulties for individuals with autism and their families. So how can you maintain the fun in holidays but also manage the major changes in routine? Here are a few ideas that may be helpful:

Use and/or modify tools your child already utilizes well. If your child uses an activity schedule, calendar, or some kind of app to prepare for transitions and upcoming events; be sure to include new icons, symbols, or preparation for the events related to holidays.
Practice the event. It may be possible for you to role play an event such as a larger family dinner, loud music, or the arrival of a someone dressed up as a character (such as Santa Claus.)
Take the time to list out what may be unique or new. While you cannot prepare for everything, it’s valuable to consider what your child may not have encountered in the past. For example, will there be lit candles within reach? Will there be appealing items your child is required to leave alone? Once you’ve brainstormed a bit, you’ll be better able to respond appropriately.
Enlist some help. If there is a family member or friend who will be present and can help if you need it, ask for their help beforehand and be specific. This might be asking them to engage your child in an activity for a short period of time, or running interference for you when your distant aunt approaches with a litany of rude questions about autism.
Make sure your child has an appropriate way to request a break. Whether your child is verbal or nonverbal, it’s helpful to teach them an appropriate way to exit a situation that is uncomfortable. This is a skill you can practice at home and use in other environments as well.
Recognize your successes. The holidays can be a stressful time, but they can also be a great indicator of just how far your child has come. Relatives you haven’t seen in a year are far more likely to see the difference in your child’s growth than you are, since you’ve seen that steady growth from day to day. It can be a wonderful time to step back and acknowledge just how hard you have all worked in previous months.

These are simple steps that may be helpful in reducing stress during the holidays. Do you have special tips for how you prepare?


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

Self-Management Interventions: Who, What, When, Where, Why, and HOW?

One of the most difficult tasks educators face is managing classroom behaviors and implementing effective behavior management systems.  There is nothing wrong with teachers applying positive reinforcement contingencies (such as implementing token boards, marble jars, or using teacher delivered point sheets) to achieve classroom order but it is desirable that students eventually learn to manage their own behavior.  John Dewey, arguably America’s most famous and important educator, suggested that the ideal aim of education is to give children a sense of ownership over their own behavior.  This process does not occur mysteriously, but through a series of systematic steps.  When a student learns to manage her or his own behavior, the outcome is a win – win. The student has learned an important life skill, becomes more independent, and increases their quality of life while the teacher is provided the opportunity to focus more on academic instruction and adaptive behavior skills.

Let’s dig deeper into the benefits of self-management interventions:

WHAT is self-management & WHO can self-monitor?

In its simplest terms, self-management involves the personal/self-application of behavior change procedures that supports goal achievement.

Self-management is not limited to use with children and/or to individuals with special needs. In fact, self-management interventions are all around us! You’ll find that some of the most popular weight loss programs, fitness monitoring, and budget tracking tools have embedded the foundational elements of effective self-management procedures. Development of self-regulation and self-management is possible from a very young age and virtually every individual has the ability to learn to self-monitor their behavior.

Self-management comes in many forms and an umbrella phrase that encompasses:

• Self-monitoring
• Self-assessment
• Self-observation
• Self-recording
• Self-charting
• Self-graphing

Most commonly, self-management is described as a series of steps where a person:

• Identifies a goal behavior
• Determines if a specific behavior has occurred
• Records the occurrence of behavior
• Obtains reinforcement

WHERE can you engage in self-management?

ANYWHERE! Self-management is an amazingly versatile intervention in that it can be used at home, in schools (Pre-K thru college), in the community, clinics, camps, and even on the job. The opportunities are endless!  Since using self-management places responsibility on the individual instead of an external source, research has shown that self-management promotes generalization to other settings even after the interventions have been faded out.        

WHEN can you engage in self-management?

ANYTIME! There are no time parameters around when you can or cannot self-monitor.  It’s flexible and can work with your schedule. You can self-monitor all day long, but if you only have 1 hour a day to work on a goal start there – it’s about progress not perfection!

WHY are self-management interventions effective?

Researchers have been specifically studying self-management since the 1960’s.  More recent evidence of self-management interventions has been synthesized in the National Autism Center’s National Standards Report, Research Synthesis on Effective Intervention Procedures from the University of South Florida Center for Evidence-based Practice, and National Professional Development Center- Evidence Based Practices. (Just to name of few) (1)  

While there are countless benefits of self-management interventions, here are the 6 most common themes that are highlighted in the research.

1. Self-management promotes independence & self-determination
2. Self-management places responsibility on the individual instead of an external source
3. Self-management interventions can be implemented with individuals with various levels of intellectual functioning
4. Self-management interventions can successfully increase behavioral and classroom performance
5. There is high acceptability for use of Self-management interventions
6. Self-management interventions can be incredibly individualized (2)

Further, self-management using a social accountability check-in (match component) is highly effective in teaching individuals how to self-monitor and in sustaining the success of meeting your goals through the intervention.  This has been outlined in the research since the 1970s.  You may have noticed the use of a social accountability check within self-management programs such as in popular step-counting apps, food tracking apps, and weight loss programs.  

WHAT IS THE SELF & MATCH SYSTEM &

HOW CAN I SET-UP A SELF-MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION?

The key to setting up any effective self-management system is pre-planning; working smarter, not harder.  Take time to think through the specifics of the self-management system before beginning to implement.  There are many variables to consider prior to implementing a self-management intervention.  Here are some of the logistics that you will want to consider:

• Target behaviors
• Procedures and schedule for monitoring the behaviors
• How the monitoring will be recorded
• Reinforcement procedures to implement when the goal is met
• Plans to fade the intervention as mastery is achieved

Systematic planning before beginning an intervention makes a world of difference and is a fundamental element of the Self & Match system. The Self & Match System is a self-management and motivational system firmly grounded in principles of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). This manualized behavioral intervention encourages a collaborative approach to promoting systematic behavioral success for children and young adults using self-monitoring with a match component. Each system is individually developed using a comprehensive considerations guide that is included in the Self & Match manual.

Self & Match has been implemented internationally across a variety of settings including: special & general education classrooms; home; camps; clinics; public, private, and parochial schools; post-secondary education; sports programs; and a soon to be launched pilot peer support project.  Self & Match can be incorporated into individualized behavior systems, class-wide, and school-wide management procedures as a part of SWPBIS.

The 6th edition of The Self & Match System: Systematic Use of Self-Monitoring as a Behavior Intervention, with a lay-flat spiral binding, is comprised of all the materials necessary to guide practitioners and/or parents in the development and implementation of creating individualized Self & Match Systems. Included in the manual is an introduction that provides a review of the literature supporting self-monitoring, Considerations Prior to Implementation Guide, 20 sample Self & Match forms, 5 reproducible Self & Match forms, and an assortment of supplemental materials.  The manual now also includes access to an online portal of customizable digital forms.

Our ultimate goal is to provide you with a tool to help students monitor and reflect on their own behavior so that they can become more independent and self-determined, resulting in an improved quality of life!


About The Authors 

Jamie Salter, Ed.S., BCBA

In her role as Program Specialist, Jamie trains educators on writing effective and legally-defensible Behavior Intervention Plans, provides leadership and guidance to special educators, consults with teams utilizing the Self & Match system, and supports students, families, and IEP teams in determining appropriate programs for students in their least restrictive environment.  Jamie received her Educational Specialist degree, Masters of Education, Nationally Certified School Psychologist status, and BCBA certification through Lehigh University.  Jamie has been actively involved in supporting children with autism for over 15 years.  She has served as Supervisor of an U.S. Department of Education Training Grant (focused on inclusion of students with low incidence disabilities), operated a school-based clinic that provided an emphasis on Intensive Behavioral Interventions, led social skills groups, sibling support groups, and provided in-home behavioral intervention.

 

Katharine Croce, Ed.D., BCBA

Dr. Katie Croce is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst.  Katie received her Doctorate in Educational Leadership and also holds a MS. Ed., in Applied Behavior Analysis, and an Autism Certificate.  Katie is currently the Director of an autism collaborative that is been designed to bring together autism resources locally, regionally, and statewide to improve access to quality services and information, provide support to individuals with autism and caregivers, train professionals in best practices and facilitate the connection between individuals, families, professionals and providers. Katie has worked as a behavior analyst in public/private schools and home settings for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities.  Katie has also worked in a clinic setting developing programs for individuals with ASD a support program for college students with ASD, and training undergraduate and graduate education and psychology majors who wanted to work in the field of ASD.  Additionally, Katie has also worked in higher education developing and teaching undergraduate and graduate course work in autism spectrum disorders and applied behavior analysis.  

Contact Jamie or Katie at selfandmatch@gmail.com

  1. In 2009, the groundbreaking National Standards Project report reviewed 775 studies in applied autism treatments and identified the level of scientific evidence available for each treatment.  Self-management was one of the 11 established treatments identified in the investigation; indicating that is has a substantial research base that supports the effective use of self-management for treating individuals.  This was further strengthened by similar findings in the National Standards Project, Phase 2, which was released in 2015.  You can download the report for free at: www.nationalautismcenter.org/nsp/
  2. Details & supporting research can be found in the Self & Match manual

 

3 Ways To Fade Prompts

Prompts are ways we help our learners demonstrate new skills. We use prompts to get our students to greet a peer, flush the toilet, name the color blue, and clap their hands. Prompts are something we add to the situation because the natural or teaching cue was not enough to cause the student to respond. The natural cue of being finished using the toilet was not a strong enough reminder to flush the toilet so we added the verbal prompt, “flush the toilet” and the student now responds. Prompts are important but fading them is just as important.  Prompt fading needs to be planned from the start and an integral and essential component to the plan. Unless you are committing to following that child around for the rest of his life and tell him to flush the toilet – prompt fading is essential.

Some rules for prompt fading:

* Plan it out from the start.
* Train your staff.
* Do it gradually.
* If incorrect responding begins, return to last prompt level.

1. Least to Most Prompt Fading

Like we discussed in Monday’s post, least to most prompting involves starting with the least intrusive prompts and moving up in the prompting hierarchy. This can be beneficial because it gives students to the opportunity to be independent and you are only providing as much prompting as needed. This is a strategy we tend to use naturally. When you meet a your friend’s toddler you put out your hand to give a high five. If she doesn’t respond you say, “give high five.” If she still doesn’t respond you move her hand to your hand to give a high five. This is a natural method of prompting. When using this method, ideally the prompts will be somewhat self fading. If you are always starting at the least intrusive prompt, your students will have the opportunity to demonstrate independence. As the student begins to learn the task, he will need less and less prompts to perform it correctly.

Some key tips for using this prompt fading procedure:

  • allow wait time; if you do not provide wait time you may be providing more prompts than needed and taking away the opportunity for the student to respond correctly
  • take data; data is key to track progress. Every time you utilize this prompting method – note the level of prompt you used. You want to see that your student is requiring less intrusive prompts as time goes on. This will help avoid prompt dependence.
  • use high powered reinforcers; use an item that is actually a reinforcer that your student wants to work for. The sooner he demonstrates the skills, the sooner he gets the reinforcer.

2. Most to Least Prompt Fading

 

Most to Least prompt fading is another effective method of using prompts. With this method you start the most intrusive prompts and gradually fade to less intrusive prompts. The prompt fading is build right in. However, sometimes people forget that and in their head rename this most to most prompting. The key to errorless learning and using the most intrusive prompts first is that you fade the prompts out. The idea behind most to least prompting is that students will contact reinforcement right away and you will avoid errors and the students developing any incorrect habits.

How to fade prompts in Most to Least Prompting:

  • set criteria for changing prompts; once your student hits a particular number of days or sessions or trials at a particular prompt level, fade to the next level; take data to track progress
  • once you hit the criteria move to the next type of prompt; refer to our prompt hierarchy or order that is in Monday’s post. Move up the list to less and less intrusive prompts.
  • fade magnitude than switch prompt type; before you switch from a gestural to a verbal prompt adjust the magnitude of the prompt. A dramatic point to an object is different that a nod of your head.

Data is critically important for avoiding prompt dependence. You want to set a criteria ahead of time and take data to make sure you are sticking with the criteria. The criteria you set will depend on the student and the task. Maybe you want 3 consecutive days with each prompt level. If you are taking data you can ensure that you are sticking to that schedule. If errors begin occurring, go back a prompt level. The data will guide your implementation of this procedure. If you are fading too quickly, your data will tell you!

Prompt fading isn’t scary. Plan ahead and make sure you train your staff. This is a group endeavor! 

3. Time Delay

 

One effective way we can fade prompts is using a time delay. A time delay inserts a set amount of time between the natural or teaching cue and our prompt. When utilizing a time delay, start with a zero second (i.e. no) time delay – so it will basically be like errorless teaching. For the first few trials, give the prompt right away so the student knows how to respond. Then after several trials, increase the time delay. For example, you may start with 2 seconds. If the student does not respond within 2 seconds – provide the prompt. If the student responds before the 2 seconds, provide loads of reinforcement. Once the student is successful and responding under the 2 seconds for several trials, increase the time delay. Now wait until 4 seconds to provide the prompt. Continue on. If the student does not respond with the 4 second time delay, move back to the 2 second time delay.

The key to time delay is planning and data. Set the criterion ahead of time. Plan how many sessions you will do at 0 seconds before moving to the first time delay. Determine what the mastery criteria is – how many times do you want the student to respond within the time delay before increasing the time delay length? Take data on this. It can easily and quickly get confusing if you don’t have a data sheet to track what you are doing. Write the plan in simple terms at the top of your data sheet. I like to track prompted correct (PC), prompted incorrect (PI), unprompted correct (UC), and unprompted incorrect (UI) using those abbreviations on my data sheet. If the student responds before the prompt it is counted as unprompted and if it’s after the prompt it is prompted!

There is no magic number of trials or days you should stay within the 0 second or 2 second time delay. It depends on the student’s level of functioning and the difficulty of the task. This is where data majorly comes in to play. If you’ve moved along too quickly, you will know and you can scale back.

Time delay works really well with verbal prompts. Another key component to time delay working successfully is making sure the reinforcement you give for the unprompted responses is better than the reinforcement for prompted responses. So if Johnny responds before the time delay and says the color blue on his own – give him 3 m&ms and praise but if you are using a 2 second time delay and he doesn’t respond and you provide the verbal prompt “bl…” and then he says blue only provide praise. You want the independent responses to be getting more reinforcement so your student is motivated to engage in those responses more!


About The Author 

Sasha Long, BCBA, M.A., is the founder and president of The Autism Helper, Inc. She is a board certified behavior analyst and certified special education teacher. After ten years of teaching in a self-contained special education classroom, Sasha now works full time as a consultant, writer, and behavior analyst. Sasha manages and writes The Autism Helper Blog, as a way to share easy to use and ready to implement strategies and ideas. Sasha also travels internationally as a speaker and consultant providing individualized training and feedback to parents, educators, therapists and administrators in the world of autism. She is currently an adjunct professor in the school of Applied Behavior Analysis at The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Sasha received her undergraduate degree in Special Education from Miami University and has a Masters Degree in Applied Behavior Analysis from The Chicago School of Professional Psychology. Contact Sasha at sasha.theautismhelper@gmail.com.

Implementing the Intervention…Even When Things are Going Well

Recently I was working with a parent who was using a TimeTimer with her son to help him recognize when it was time to get ready for bed. Our plan was to start the timer every night while he was engaged in an activity, show him the timer and have him repeat how many minutes left, then have him tell his mom when the timer went off. For the first couple of weeks, this plan worked beautifully. The boy could see the time elapsing, brought the timer to his mother when it went off, and then started the process to get ready for bed without engaging in tantrum behaviors.

I went in for a parent training session after a month of the intervention and the boy’s mother informed me the timer just wasn’t working any more. As we started talking, I realized that the mother had drifted from our original plan in a way that is quite common. As her son experienced success, she used the timer less frequently. Then, if he was struggling, she would introduce the timer. In effect, she started only using the timer when he was misbehaving, instead of using it as a consistent tool to help him with the bedtime routine.

This type of procedural drift (when there is an unintentional or unplanned change in the procedure outlined for the intervention) is very common for parents, teachers, and ABA therapists. It’s important to understand this type of drift so it can be corrected when it occurs.

Here are a few things to remember when implementing an intervention:

• First, any intervention should include a clear plan for fading the intervention. In the example above, the TimeTimer was an appropriate tool for this particular child, who was only four years old. But we don’t want him to rely on the timer for the duration of childhood! A plan should include how to fade the intervention with specific steps and specific requirements for mastery.

• The use of the TimeTimer is considered an antecedent intervention. This means that we are implementing a change in the environment prior to any problem behaviors to help the child contact reinforcement and experience success. Antecedent interventions should be implemented consistently as part of a routine, not ONLY when a problem behavior occurs. If it is only implemented when the problem behavior occurs, it is no longer an antecedent intervention.

• If we implement a tool (like the TimeTimer) only when problem behavior occurs, it’s possible the tool will become aversive to the child and possibly result in an increased magnitude of the problem behavior.

• Consider using tools for the people implementing to intervention to remind them of the specific steps. For example, you might create a video model and instruct the parent (or other adult implementing the intervention) to watch it every couple days. Or you might post the steps in a clear space to be reviewed regularly.

• Finally, we have to remember that a couple of good days in a row without any instances of problem behavior does not mean that the problem is solved. This is why the first step outlined above is so important. We want to teach the child replacement behaviors and give them lots of opportunities to be successful with it.

 

Ultimately, we were able to re-implement the procedure with this parent and see more continued success with this particular case. We also decided to post the steps to the intervention on the back of the TimeTimer for easy review on a daily basis.

However, in some cases, you might have to create an entirely new intervention using different tools. The goal is to be clear about the steps of the intervention, and to maintain those steps when implementing the intervention.


WRITTEN BY SAM BLANCO, PhD, LBA, BCBA

Sam is an ABA provider for students ages 3-15 in NYC. Working in education for twelve years with students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and other developmental delays, Sam utilizes strategies for achieving a multitude of academic, behavior, and social goals. She is also an assistant professor in the ABA program at The Sage Colleges.

How Parents Can Fit ABA Into Their Busy Schedules

“Dear Behavior BFF, I have followed your posts for a while now. The problem I see is that in order for me to be successful as a parent, I have to follow ABA 100% of the time. In order to be effective, do I need to enroll in graduate classes and learn everything I can about ABA? Do I need to become a BCBA to manage my own kids’ behavior better? Feeling overwhelmed over here…”

Thank you for learning about ABA as a parent. The science of behavior can help us SO much with our own kids. But does that mean you need to know every technical definition and fact before you can use some behavior strategies in your own home? NO! Heck no!

You are a busy parent. I am a busy parent. Most people reading this are busy parents (at least that’s the intended audience).  Do you have time to complete a master’s degree in behavior analysis just to help you be a more efficient parent who capitalizes on the science of behavior? Ummm…no. You don’t have that kind of time. So does that mean you should give up on using behavior analysis as a parent? Also no.

Behavior analysis teaches us to focus on the behavior itself. It teaches us to manipulate the environment to help our kids engage in desired and proactive behaviors. It helps us find ways to increase positive reinforcement, increase positive interactions, and teach our kids to effectively communicate their wants and needs.

The good news is we can do all of those things within the constraints of our busy family schedules! You can use positive reinforcement effectively without knowing the difference between differential reinforcement of incompatible or alternative behaviors.

And more good news: when you need to get technical, there are Board Certified Behavior Analysts (BCBAs) to do that with you! We like talking behavior science. We are ABA nerds. Let us do that part for you. If you want to join us, then enroll in that ABA graduate program. If you don’t want a new career- then learn what you can as a parent in the time that you have.

So where do you start in order to not be overwhelmed and get the benefit of decades of behavioral research? You’re in the right place. Peruse these non-academic articles offered at bSci21 that help make the science easier to digest. Learn about positive reinforcement and how to use it effectively.

Start by providing positive reinforcement for desired behaviors. Decide what you want your child to do more of, then reward them for doing it! Start small with one behavior strategy at a time, then continue to learn and add another positive behavior support as you go.

You don’t have to become a behavior expert in order to effectively use behavior analysis to save your sanity as a parent. Start small, build a little at a time. Celebrate your successes. Reward your child(ren) for their successes. Shape your own behavior by building on with baby steps. Every step in the right direction is a success. Make it work for you and your family in the time that you have. You CAN do this!


About The Author 

Leanne Page, MEd, BCBA, is the author of Parenting with Science: Behavior Analysis Saves Mom’s Sanity. As a Behavior Analyst and a mom of two little girls, she wanted to share behavior analysis with a population who could really use it- parents!

Leanne’s writing can be found in Parenting with Science and Parenting with ABA as well as a few other sites. She is a monthly contributor to bSci21.com , guest host for the Dr. Kim Live show, and has contributed to other websites as well.

Leanne has worked with children with disabilities for over 10 years. She earned both her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Texas A&M University.  She also completed ABA coursework through the University of North Texas before earning her BCBA certification in 2011. Leanne has worked as a special educator of both elementary and high school self-contained, inclusion, general education, and resource settings.

Leanne also has managed a center providing ABA services to children in 1:1 and small group settings. She has  extensive experience in school and teacher training, therapist training, parent training, and providing direct services to children and families in a center-based or in-home therapy setting.

Leanne is now located in Dallas, Texas and is available for: distance BCBA and BCaBA supervision, parent training, speaking opportunities, and consultation. She can be reached via Facebook or at Lpagebcba@gmail.com.

Qualifications of Practitioners/Consultants who Practice ABA

This month’s ASAT feature comes to us from Sabrina Freeman, PhD, ASAT’s Consumer Corner Coordinator. To learn more about ASAT, please visit their website at www.asatonline.org. You can also sign up for ASAT’s free newsletter, Science in Autism Treatment, and like them on Facebook!

It’s crucial to be a savvy consumer when it comes to one of the most important decisions you will make for your loved one with autism – choosing an ABA treatment provider for your child. Those of us who have already walked in your shoes know that all treatment providers are not the same. To the uninitiated, these professionals all look marvelous. From the slick websites, to the large numbers of associations of which these professionals are members, it is becoming increasingly difficult to differentiate between mediocre and outstanding treatment providers. Furthermore, publication of research in high quality journals is not synonymous with clinical expertise.

Fortunately, in this issue of Consumer Corner, we present a summary of consumer guidelines created by the Autism Special Interest Group (SIG) of the Association of Behavior Analysis International to help you make an informed choice when searching for ABA professionals to design, run and maintain your child’s program. A complete copy of the SIG guidelines are available here: https://3lvvdfmmeol12qpvw2c75ch6-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Final-Autism-Sig-Guidelines-Parent-Version-May-2018.pdf It is important to remember that your child’s future depends on highly quality consulting. Good luck!

 

  1. Certification:

Treatment professionals must all have advanced degrees, e.g., a Master’s Degree or a Doctorate in a relevant field of study, and be certified either by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB), or a board that has equal or higher level requirements than the BACB. To look up your consultant, visit: www.bacb.com and click on “Find A Certificant.” If the potential consultant is not on this list, ask where he/she became credentialed, and trained so that you can verify licensure and experience to determine whether it is equal to/or surpasses the standards of the BACB. If this individual responds to your inquiry in a defensive manner, then you may consider looking elsewhere as you are well within your right to seek clarification about certification status.

Find & Contact Certificants

  1. Extensive Hands-On Supervised Training:

Consultants are required to have extensive hands-on training treating children with autism in which they have worked at least one full year (1500 clock independent supervised hours or 1000 hours if taking a university practicum and 750 hours if taking an intensive practicum) under the supervision of a credentialed BCBA Certificant. In addition, they need to prove competency in many areas that cover the design and implementation of both individualized ABA interventions, and comprehensive ABA treatment programs. The partial list below was created by the Autism Special Interest Group (SIG) below. Your consultant should be competent in all the following areas:

  1. a) Design and implement individualized ABA Interventions
  • community living skills
  • functional communication skills (vocal and non-vocal)
  • “learning to learn” skills (e.g., looking, listening, following instructions, imitating)
  • motor skills
  • personal safety skills
  • play and leisure skills
  • pre-academic and academic skills
  • reduction of behaviors that jeopardize health and safety and impede successful functioning (e.g., stereotypic, obsessive, ritualistic, aggressive, self-injurious, disruptive, and other behaviors often described as “challenging”).
  • school readiness skills
  • self-care skills
  • self- management skills
  • social interaction skills
  • vocational
  1. b) Design and implement both comprehensive ABA intervention programs (using multiple ABA procedures to address multiple intervention targets) and focused interventions (using one or more ABA procedures to address a small number of intervention targets).
  2. c) Delivering ABA interventions directly to at least 8 individuals with autism who present with a range of repertoires, levels of functioning, and ages.
  3. d) Implementing the full range of scientifically validated behavior analytic procedures, including but not limited to:
  • reinforcement (including differential reinforcement)
  • extinction
  • discrete-trial procedures
  • modeling (including video modeling)
  • incidental teaching and other “naturalistic” methods
  • activity-embedded intervention
  • task analysis
  • chaining
  • activity schedules
  • scripts and script fading
  • prompting and prompt-fading
  • errorless training
  • error correction
  • motivating operations
  • stimulus control
  • preference assessments
  • choice
  • augmentative and alternative communication training procedures.
  1. Continuing Education:

Not only do behavioral consultants need to be trained as above, in order to maintain their certification, practitioners must also pursue continuing education in a variety of areas that may include, but are not limited to, Applied Behavior Analysis.

Red Flag

These practitioners should not be working collaboratively with professionals who implement an eclectic mix of interventions that are untested, discredited or experimental in nature. If the consultant you use endorses an eclectic approach, understand that this practice is inconsistent with the BACB Guidelines for Responsible Conduct for Behavior Analysis. This red flag is a particularly helpful way to be forewarned about a consultant who is not a good choice to design and maintain your child’s program!