Positive Reinforcement Strategies For Bedtime

“Dear Behavior BFF, bedtime is the absolute worst time of day. I dread putting my kids to bed because they draw everything out with so much drama! They argue, complain, cry, you name it! Why is it so hard? Can you help us?”

Unfortunately, you are not alone in this one. Bedtime can be hard for so many kids and parents (me included!).

We could spend all day guessing why our kiddos fight going to bed. Do they have FOMO (fear of missing out) on what parents do after they go to bed? Are they not tired enough? Are they too tired? Are their pajamas truly itchy? Is there really a scary shadow of a monster on the wall? But those questions don’t guide us to a solution to deal with this daily problem.

Instead- let’s look at it from a solution-based perspective. What would a solution look like for you? What behaviors are you looking to increase at bedtime?

Sample target behaviors (the things you are trying to get your kids to do MORE of):

  • Finish pre-bed routines with minimal reminders
  • Follow directions with 1 or 2 reminders
  • Use a quiet voice
  • Only come out of your room 1 time after bedtime
  • Ask nicely for things
  • Read or play quietly if you aren’t ready to go to sleep

So what can we do to increase these behaviors in our homes each evening? Try some evidence-based positive reinforcement strategies!

Premack principle: FIRST (do the unpreferred task), THEN (get a reinforcer).

The FIRST needs to be clear and direct. Tell your child what the target behavior is. What CAN they do right now to earn reinforcement? The THEN needs to be worth it for your child. Choose a quality reinforcer or better yet- let your kiddo(s) choose!

  • FIRST use a quiet voice at bedtime, THEN we can sing a song together.
  • FIRST stay in your room until 7am, THEN you can watch a TV show in the morning.
  • FIRST follow directions at bedtime, THEN choose a toy to take to bed with you.

Token Economy: A structured reinforcement system where your child earns tokens (stickers, marbles, points) to exchange for a big reinforcer when enough have been earned. Steps to using a token economy to make bedtime easier may include the following:

  1. Choose specific target behaviors. Tell your child 1-3 things they CAN and should do at bedtime instead of problem behavior.
  2. Give the token (sticker on a sticker chart, marble in a marble jar, points on a point sheet, etc) every time your child does these desired bedtime behaviors.
  3. When they reach their goal- let them use their tokens to ‘buy’ the big reinforcer!

To be successful, be consistent. Give a token every time your kiddo does one of the desired behaviors. Be clear- make sure your children know what the desired behaviors are. Don’t set the goal too high to start with. Help your children to be successful to get them on board with the plan!

No matter what evidence-based strategy you choose, be consistent with it. Give reinforcement as immediately as possible. Catch your children being good and give high-quality reinforcers!

References

Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis.

Homme, L. E., Debaca, P. C., Devine, J. V., Steinhorst, R., & Rickert, E. J. (1963). Use of the Premack principle in controlling the behavior of nursery school children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

Kazdin, A. E. (1982). The token economy: A decade later. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15(3), 431-445.

Kazdin, A. E. (Ed.). (1977). The token economy: A review and evaluation. Plenum Publishing Corporation.

Knapp, T. J. (1976). The Premack principle in human experimental and applied settings. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14(2), 133-147.

This piece originally appeared on www.bSci21.com. 


About The Author 

Leanne Page, MEd, BCBA, is the author of Parenting with Science: Behavior Analysis Saves Mom’s Sanity. As a Behavior Analyst and a mom of two little girls, she wanted to share behavior analysis with a population who could really use it- parents!

Leanne’s writing can be found in Parenting with Science and Parenting with ABA as well as a few other sites. She is a monthly contributor to bSci21.com , guest host for the Dr. Kim Live show, and has contributed to other websites as well.

Leanne has worked with children with disabilities for over 10 years. She earned both her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Texas A&M University.  She also completed ABA coursework through the University of North Texas before earning her BCBA certification in 2011. Leanne has worked as a special educator of both elementary and high school self-contained, inclusion, general education, and resource settings.

Leanne also has managed a center providing ABA services to children in 1:1 and small group settings. She has  extensive experience in school and teacher training, therapist training, parent training, and providing direct services to children and families in a center-based or in-home therapy setting.

Leanne is now located in Dallas, Texas and is available for: distance BCBA and BCaBA supervision, parent training, speaking opportunities, and consultation. She can be reached via Facebook or at Lpagebcba@gmail.com.

The Benefits of an Early Autism Diagnosis

Children are being diagnosed with autism earlier and earlier. Some children are as young as 18 months when they receive an autism diagnosis. Identifying an autism diagnosis at an early age can result in better future outcomes for a child, that is, if steps are taken to help children receive effective services, such as Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). Early intervention, as it relates to ABA is oftentimes referred to as Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI).

  • Early, because a child begins receiving treatment between the ages of 18 months and 3 years old.
  • Intensive, because of the amount of time treatment is provided. Research demonstrating the effectiveness of an Applied Behavior Analytic approach demonstrates that the optimal number of hours of treatment should typically range from 25-40 hours per week.
  • Behavioral Intervention, because it relates to the principles of behavior (such as reinforcement, shaping, and prompting) that have been demonstrated as effective strategies in changing behavior for decades.

Deciding to enroll an 18-month-old child into a therapeutic program that recommends upwards of 25-40 hours per week of intervention can be quite intimidating. However, children with autism demonstrate developmental delays in comparison to their typically developing peers. Therefore, the “intensity” of an ABA program helps to bridge the gap between a child on the autism spectrum and his/her typically developing peers. A quality ABA program will incorporate hundreds of valuable learning opportunities into a single hour of intervention. These learning opportunities are specifically tailored to meet each child’s unique needs, with the intent of teaching him/her the necessary skills to acquire age-appropriate behavior.

I have spoken to many parents who are hesitant to enroll their child in treatment that requires the level of intensity of an ABA program. However, the concentration on an individual child’s specific needs, paired with the magnitude of learning opportunities in a single day, allows for each child to achieve their personal best outcomes.

Because autism can lead to a lifetime of learning delays, the earlier a child can receive treatment, the better their long-term prognosis will be. I have never spoken to a parent who stated that they got their teenager with autism into treatment too early!


Dr. Breanne Hartley, PhD, BCBA-D is the Senior Clinical Director at Little Star ABA Therapy. You can learn more about Little Star on their website and Facebook page. 

Parenting Tips For More Independent Children

“Dear Behavior BFF, How do I get my child to be more independent? I want her to handle dressing herself- things like getting out clean clothes, putting them on as much as she can, putting her dirty clothes in the correct hamper, etc. I know she is capable but she just chooses not to take care of these things by herself!”

I am going to take your word for it that your daughter does not have any limitations that would make the tasks associated with independent dressing difficult. So- how do you get her to actually do it? And do it consistently?

One question I have for you is simply this: Where are her clothes and hamper? Are they easy for her to access?  Let’s look at the physical environment and see if we can decrease the response effort for the desired behavior.

Response effort is what it sounds like: the amount of effort necessary to make a response. In other words, how easy it is to engage in the desired behavior.  We all typically orient toward a low response effort over something that is tedious or difficult. We can find ways to lower the response effort for the desired behavior, making it easier for our children.

So- if her hamper is in the laundry room and you expect her to walk her dirty clothes down the hallway to put them there- is there an easy environmental manipulation you could try? How about moving her hamper to her bedroom or bathroom- wherever the dirty clothes are removed? Walking down the hall to put clothes away doesn’t seem like a big deal- but a simple hamper location switch could be a game changer for increasing your daughter’s independence.

What about accessing her clean clothes? Is it hard to open her closet door? Does it stick sometimes or is the handle difficult to turn? Is her closet floor a mess that she has to climb over to get to the clothes? (Pause writing this article to go assess my own child’s messy closet to decrease her response effort in getting to her own clothes.)

If a simple environmental manipulation will increase the desired behavior, there is no need for an involved intervention. Try the simple solution first!

Now- moving things around might not be enough to increase your daughter’s independent behaviors. Enter positive reinforcement. What does she get for doing these things listed above? What is the reward for independently dressing herself? The feeling of a job well done?

Whatever the current reward is, it’s not working. If it’s not increasing the frequency of the behavior, it’s not reinforcement. Find a way to increase your daughter’s independent dressing by offering positive reinforcement following every instance of the desired behaviors. This can be any range of things- a high five, verbal praise, access to a preferred item or activity, points toward a goal in a token economy, whatever works for your family!

In short:

  • Decrease response effort by changing things in the environment to make the desired behavior easier to emit.
  • Provide positive reinforcement for engaging in the desired behavior.

No matter what behavior you are trying to increase, these are the go-to first steps we can always try as parents. These are powerful evidence-based tools of behavior analysis that are quick and easy to try and can lead to some pretty fantastic results!

This piece originally appeared on www.bSci21.com. 


About The Author 

Leanne Page, MEd, BCBA, is the author of Parenting with Science: Behavior Analysis Saves Mom’s Sanity. As a Behavior Analyst and a mom of two little girls, she wanted to share behavior analysis with a population who could really use it- parents!

Leanne’s writing can be found in Parenting with Science and Parenting with ABA as well as a few other sites. She is a monthly contributor to bSci21.com , guest host for the Dr. Kim Live show, and has contributed to other websites as well.

Leanne has worked with children with disabilities for over 10 years. She earned both her Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from Texas A&M University.  She also completed ABA coursework through the University of North Texas before earning her BCBA certification in 2011. Leanne has worked as a special educator of both elementary and high school self-contained, inclusion, general education, and resource settings.

Leanne also has managed a center providing ABA services to children in 1:1 and small group settings. She has  extensive experience in school and teacher training, therapist training, parent training, and providing direct services to children and families in a center-based or in-home therapy setting.

Leanne is now located in Dallas, Texas and is available for: distance BCBA and BCaBA supervision, parent training, speaking opportunities, and consultation. She can be reached via Facebook or at Lpagebcba@gmail.com.

ABA Is Fun!

ABA is Functional. Unique. Natural.

Here’s a great process to create a FUN ABA goal:

1. ABA goals are functional. This means goals are chosen because they are of importance to the child and the child’s ability to be a part of the community. That is, within the family, school, at the grocery store, etc.

Sam (not an actual client!) is doing really well with his preschool peers and the teachers are excited to move him up to Kindergarten. Our goal is to work on Kindergarten readiness skills: playing with toys in a functional manner, reading grade level words/letter sounds, and identifying numbers.

2. Each child is unique. The first thing we have to do is find the appropriate motivation. Children don’t fit into cookie cutter therapy programs. Every child is UNIQUE and will prefer different activities, experiences, foods, or toys. Identify a few of these highly preferred things your child enjoys.

Sam is pretty good at playing with a variety of toys, but ABSOLUTELY LOVES vehicles. In fact, this is the first thing he runs to during free play time and will sit for 15 minutes and play with airplanes and firetrucks. Sam will also consistently and quickly finish worksheets when told that he can play with vehicles after work.

3. Natural. A lot of people think that ABA only occurs at the table, but it actually occurs everywhere. ABA therapists may have to begin skill building at a table, but they will quickly work on generalizing skills to the natural environment. We want the child to be able to use all of that wonderful knowledge in all environments.

Time to piece it together! For Sam, we made a parking lot and filled in the parking spots with “targets.” Programs covered during his therapy time included:

– Receptive and Expressive identification of words and numbers (park the airplane in spot 11, what is parked in the spot that says “that”)
– Multiple step instructions (grap the red train, fill it up at the gas station, and park it in spot 20)
– Colors
– Block imitation from a model (Vehicles need gas to go! build a gas station pump that looks like mine!)
– Following instructions (Parking lots need stores! Go get the pile of blocks and build your favorite store)
– Receptive and Expressive Categories (where are the numbers/words/vehicles, what vehicle do you want?)
– Math, Counting (how many empty spots do we have left? How many more vehicles need spots?)
– Positional words (put the airplane on top of the store)
– Yes/no/not (is this a firetruck? find the airplane that is NOT yellow)
– Answering questions (the kids on this bus are hungry…where should they go?)

Remember: It’s important for children to play and have fun while they learn!


About The Author

Elizabeth Ginder, MSSW, BCBA, LBA is the Clinical Director of ABA Interventions, LLC. Elizabeth specializes in working with children ages 2 through early adulthood. She has experience working with children diagnosed with intellectual and developmental disabilities, as well as children with severe, challenging behaviors. Elizabeth also has a strong background in parent, teacher and staff training. Her focus is on verbal behavior, skill acquisition and teaching children how to have fun! You can find more information on ABA Interventions at their Facebook page or at www.aba-interventions.com.

The NR Blues

What’s “NR” you ask? A common way to collect data after a trial in which the learner not only did not give a correct response, but didn’t respond at all, is to score “no response” (NR).

While motor actions can be prompted if the learner does not do anything, vocal responses cannot. I say to my staff all the time, “we can’t reach into his/her throat and pull out words”. So if you say to your client “What color is the sun? YELLOW” and they just stare at you, then that was a “no response” trial.

Many, many moons ago I worked at an early intervention clinic. We had one client in particular there, let’s call him Sam. Sam was the bane of my existence for a while, because he made me feel like an incompetent idiot.

 See, Sam was a very bright little boy with the most beautiful smile who could sing songs, answer questions, do simple academic tasks, and engage in various play skills. But then, Sam would hit a wall in his responding. He would remove all eye contact, stop smiling, and just stare blankly at…nothing. I haven’t met anyone since who could be looking directly at you, yet not looking at you at the same time. When Sam got like that he would not emit any of his target responses independently. This meant all motor actions were prompted, and good luck trying to do anything that required vocalizing. I just did not know what to do when this would happen, and it made me nervous to work with Sam because I knew it wouldhappen at some point.

Sam is who I think about when I am working with staff who are having a hard time “connecting” with a client in the session. I can absolutely relate to how it feels to bring your A-game, put on your animated face, and get a lot of nothing in return. It’s frustrating, and makes you doubt your skills.

When correct responding disappears from the session, some clients may turn super silly and distractible, or some may have a spike in aggression. Just between you and me, I would much rather deal with one of those scenarios. It’s the completely checked- out individual that I find to be the most difficult…..it is kind of like your clients body remained in the chair, but the rest of them got up, walked out of the building, and is headed somewhere FAR more exciting.

So if you are working with a Sam or two, here are a few things that definitely do not work, are ineffective, and should be avoided:

  • *Waiting the client out – I have seen a few therapists try this one, and usually the client is perfectly content to keep staring into space as you wait them out.
  • *Continue teaching/Keep up the status quo – Think of it like this, if your client has completely stopped any correct responding and you just keep plugging away: Is learning happening?
  • * Speak louder – Sound silly? I see it a lot, and back in the day I was guilty of this one too.
  • * “Saaaam…..Sam!….Helloooooo, Sam?” – If your client is not responding to demands to touch, give, open, or talk, odds are they also will not respond to their name being called.

Now that we got all the stuff that does not work out of the way, I really only have one suggestion for what you SHOULD try when those non- responsive blues kick in. It may be just one suggestion, but it can look about 900 different ways depending on the learner. 

Change something about YOU.

What my staff usually say to me (and how I used to look at this back in the day) is: “I tried this, and that, and this, and Sam just won’t attend/listen/respond! I don’t know what else to do to get him to (insert whatever response the therapist is expecting)”.

What I am suggesting, is flip that statement on its head and instead ask yourself: “What can I do differently that will motivate Sam to respond? Am I interesting? Am I reinforcing? Would I want to attend to me? Is this program interesting? Are these materials engaging? When did I last reinforce any of his behavior? Is my frustration/annoyance showing on my face? Does my voice sound irritated? Am I moving through targets too quickly? Too slowly? How can I be more fun?”.

See the difference? Instead of unintentionally blaming Sam for his lack of responding, first blame yourself. Then, look at your options and start trying them out to see what is effective.  I am a big fan of “Let’s try this and see what happens”. Even if you try something and it fails, you just learned 1 thing that does NOT work. Which is still progress.


About The Author: Tameika Meadows, BCBA

“I’ve been providing ABA therapy services to young children with Autism since early 2003. My career in ABA began when I stumbled upon a flyer on my college campus for what I assumed was a babysitting job. The job turned out to be an entry level ABA therapy position working with an adorable little boy with Autism. This would prove to be the unplanned beginning of a passionate career for me.

From those early days in the field, I am now an author, blogger, Consultant/Supervisor, and I regularly lead intensive training sessions for ABA staff and parents. If you are interested in my consultation services, or just have questions about the blog: contact me here.”

This piece originally appeared at www.iloveaba.com

 

Back to Basics: Core Concepts in ABA

Over the past two decades, dozens of task forces, panels, and independent research studies have found that Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the only effective intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  Although ABA is helpful for many issues other than autism, and in fact is not a treatment of autism in and of itself, the practice of the science is often linked to ASD.  I’d like to share some of the core principles of ABA that are associated with the many ways in which ABA is helpful for supporting individuals on the autism spectrum.

First, ABA works from the crucially important framework of determinism.  This means that behavior analysts see behavior as being determined by the environment.  In other words, the reasons for behavior are external, not particular to the person.  As we like to say, “The student is always right.”  This perspective is tremendously helpful because it means that there’s always something that can be done to help.  If an individual is having difficulty learning, we can adjust the environment to improve his or her ability to learn.  If someone is engaging in behavior that is dangerous or upsetting, we can adjust the environment to reduce the likelihood of that behavior.  We never try to change a PERSON; rather we attempt to change the events that occur before and after behavior, making that behavior more or less likely.

Next, ABA is highly individualized.  One of the reasons that it is so effective as a practice in teaching and supporting individuals with ASD is that each person receives a tailor-made intervention that addresses his or her needs, strengths, and preferences.  ASD does not look the same in every person who has it, therefore intervention should not look the same.  Furthermore, continuous data collection and analysis allow for continuous updating and refining of interventions, so that each individual should be receiving the most effective strategies at all times.

Finally, ABA focuses on lifestyle changes and involves parents and significant others in all interventions.  ABA is not something that is done by behavior analysts to people with autism.  Rather, it’s the practical application of the science of behavior by the people who interact with – and care for – those in need of intervention the most.  In many cases, behavioral programming is carried out by teachers or paraprofessionals, but ABA is most effective when it’s also carried out by parents, siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, and friends.  The design of effective strategies and ongoing analysis of outcomes should be overseen by a well-qualified behavior analyst, but the strategies themselves should involve everyone in the individual’s life.  This helps to ensure generalization and maintenance of behavior change, and to provide the individual with ASD maximum exposure to supportive strategies throughout his or her day.

For these reasons and more, ABA is the intervention of choice for individuals on the autism spectrum.  It is humane, effective, and fair.  Given the right intervention, those with ASD can achieve personal goals and reach increased levels of independence in their lives.


About The Author

Dana Reinecke is a doctoral level Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA-D) and a New York State Licensed Behavior Analyst (LBA).   Dana is an Assistant Professor and Department Chair of the Department of Special Education and Literacy at Long Island University Post.  Dana provides training and consultation to school districts, private schools, agencies, and families for individuals with disabilities.  She has presented original research and workshops on the treatment of autism and applications of ABA at regional, national, and international conferences.  She has published her research in peer-reviewed journals, written chapters in published books, and co-edited books on ABA and autism.  Current areas of research include use of technology to support students with and without disabilities, self-management training of college students with disabilities, and online teaching strategies for effective college and graduate education.  Dana is actively involved in the New York State Association for Behavior Analysis (NYSABA), and is currently serving as President (2017-2018).

Language Milestones

How many professionals have been asked: “How do I know if my child is behind in language development?” How many parents have asked the question, or at least wondered to themselves?

Language development varies from child to child, and there are wide ranges of expected “normal” language development in young children. If you are using Stages Learning Materials products with your own child, and you are concerned about language development, you should definitely discuss this with your health care professional. However, for reference sake, in general:

By the age of one, a child is expected to achieve the following general language milestones: 

  • Respond to the speech of others verbally or through facial expressions or other simple gestures such as shaking the head up and down for “yes”
  • Pay attention to speech of others
  • Respond to simple verbal requests including the word “no”
  • Babble with inflection
  • Attempt to imitate speech of others
  • Use simple works such as “dada”, “mama” and simple exclamations such as “oh-oh!”
  • Use exclamations, such as “oh-oh!”
  • Follow simple commands or instructions
  • Point to an object or picture when it is named for her
  • Recognize names of familiar objects, body parts and familiar faces
  • Repeat words overheard in the conversation of others
  • Say several single words and simple phrases by 15-18 months
  • Use simple phrases and 2-4 word sentences by 18-24 months

By the three-four years of age, a child is expected to achieve the following general language milestones:

  • Understand the concept of “same” and “different”
  • Speaks in sentences of five to six words with an understanding of simple grammar
  • Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
  • Tell stories

Again, it is important to realize that all children are different, and develop at their own pace, but if you feel that your child is falling significantly behind, it may be a good idea to consult your pediatrician, speech therapist, or other child development professional to discuss a strategy to help your child reach language development milestones.

— Adapted from an article written by Dr. Jen Canter, pediatrician and inventor of the U-Play
Mat for Education


About The Author

Angela founded Stages Learning Materials in 1997 as a vehicle to publish and distribute her line of photo-based teaching tools for autism and special needs. Angela has a BA in Psychology, and a JD, both from UCLA; and an M.Ed. from Harvard Graduate School of Education from the Technology, Innovation and Education Program. 

At UCLA Angela studied behavioral psychology under Dr. Ivar Lovaas, head of the premier program in the treatment and education of children with autism. Following graduation, she worked as a senior therapist for the Center for Autism and Related Disorders, supervising educational programs, performing assessments, and conducting workshops for parents and professionals across the country and in Europe. During her graduate work at UCLA, Angela completed multiple cross-departmental courses through the MBA program at UCLA’s Anderson School of Business Management. 

Angela is currently the incoming Chair of the Education Market Association, serves as a Teaching Fellow at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and speaks at national conferences and education institutes on autism education and early literacy. 

ABLLS-R® Skill Acquisition Program Manuals (Book 1 & 2)

The development of these manuals is a culmination of years of clinical work involving direct ABA intervention, teaching, coaching, training, and clinical oversight to teams delivering ABA intervention.

I have always enjoyed seeing students’ progress in their learning – knowing that the foundation of ‘good teaching’ is not only based on proper training, supervision, coaching and modelling – but also a standardized teaching approach that can be individualized for each student.

With a multitude of approaches and teaching methods being used to impact the potential of a student’s learning and success, I became inspired to create a series of step-wise, quality Skill Acquisition Teaching Plans that provided a framework of consistency for Instructors and teachers who were working with the students.
I am excited to share with you the ABLLS-R® Skill Acquisition Program Manuals – created as companion manuals to Dr. James Partington’s Assessment of Basic Language and Learning Skills – Revised (ABLLS R ®). We are confident that these plans will provide users a consistent framework for skill assessment, skill teaching and skill tracking for students with autism spectrum disorders.
In conjunction with the ABLLS-R®, the contents of the manuals provide information for each of the Task Codes in the ABLLS-R® curriculum for how to:

• Assess baseline performance levels for skills/tasks within the ABLLS R®
• Arrange the teaching environment for optimal teaching and learning
• Set up and administer prompts
• Implement and embed various teaching strategies to teach a skill
• Use Error Correction Procedures
• Collect data to measure and monitor progress

Both manuals include Companion Forms and Data Templates that are used along with the written Skill Acquisition Teaching Plans. These documents offer a user-friendly structure for setting up a student’s program binder, as well as information for how to organize necessary information for teaching and monitoring student progress.
We trust you will find as much value in these manuals as we have, and that you will see continued success with your students learning.

The ABLLS-R® Skill Acquisition Program Manuals are currently available for pre-order. Head to our site for more details! 


About The Author 

Tammy J. Frazer is a Board Certified Behavior Analyst with over 18 years of experience working with individuals with autism and developmental disorders. She earned a Masters of Arts in psychology with a specialization in Applied Behavior Analysis from the University of Nevada, Reno and has been a BCBA since 2007. Tammy is the Founder and Director of On Solid Ground Inc, an organization in Barrie, Ontario that is committed to the delivery of quality, effective, and evidence based behavior assessment and intervention to individuals with autism and developmental disorders and delays.